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The idea of enlightenment that was widespread in the Baltic States since the second half of the 18th century raised the public's attention to the problem of the citizen of the society. The question was also raised by the Estonian citizen as a citizen who was afflicted with serfdom in his country.
Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803), studying the folklore and language of many European nations, including the Baltic States, proved the equal heights of the creative spirit of all nations. Building on the concept of natural progress, Herder developed a philosophical doctrine of the progress of history as a movement of society towards humanism. According to this, there could be no justification for crowding out one nation for the other by organizing the life of society, as it had historically developed in Livonia and Estonia.
Balthasar von Campenhausen (1745-1800), the governor of Livonia appointed as deputy governor of Kuressaare, founded the "Saaremaa Enlightenment Age". In the next century, there were a number of liters of ideas about their attitude to life and their vision.
Johann Wilhelm Ludwig von Luce was the most versatile and influential leader in the new activities of Saaremaa since then . His goal was to build a new, more open civil society. His activities were aimed at shaping a new local order of life, accompanied by a change of attitude towards the indigenous people of the land. The level of this change, however, did not rise to the level of the Herder's spirit, even though Lucel himself had good relations with the local population.
Deputy Chief of Campenhausen from the Kuressaare period is the first announcement of the beginning of German-language journalism in Saaremaaa. According to the well- known literary scholar Rudolf Põldmäe, the newspaper "Arensburgische Wochen- oder Intelligenzblätter" , founded in 1785, wasoriginally written, but later printed and probably in Riga.
In the Baltic sub-layers, the idea of lighting was channeled only to religious lighting. In the first half of the 19th century, the Bible associations laid the foundations for a wider spread of the Estonian-language clergy, allowing them to print unprecedented amounts of Bible and other gifts with their charitable donations. religious literature.
Only Otto Wilhelm Masing, who claimed that Estonians needed higher and better school education than just reading skills and knowledge of spiritual books, opposed the promotion of a spiritual word. Interestingly, the direction of Masing was followed in Saaremaa, where pastors and other educated Baltic Germans paid attention to educating the peasantry by setting up parish schools beside reading schools, where the level of teaching rose and corresponded to the level of urban schools. In addition to the acquisition of spiritual literature, thought was also given to secular writing and its quality. The need to establish a printing house in Saaremaa arose for both one and the other to be more smooth.
Societies and the necessity of establishing a printing house in Saaremaa
The beginning of printing in Saaremaa is related to the enthusiastic social activities of that time. It has not been much spoken in the Estonian-language writing that the Baltic-Germans who became culturally inhabited by their place of residence, including many of the state-owned Germans raised by the Russian government in the nobility, were very active social partners throughout the whole of Livonia.
On the Russian Tsar's birthday, June 25, 1834, a central cultural exploration society was founded in Riga, which included its membership from all over historical Livonia. It was the Gesellschaft und Altertumskunde der Ostseeprovinzen RuBlands of the Baltic Sea Provincial History and Ancient Studies Society of Russia . Under the articles of association, a board of directors, consisting of a president, eight directors, a secretary, a cashier, a librarian and a museum inspector was elected to promote the company's activities.
The first president was the landlord of Livonia, Hermann von Campenhausen (1773-1836). Later presidents should be named Carl Eduard Napiersky (1853-1860), well-known humanitarian scientists of his time, August Wilhelm Buchholtz (1860-1875), Heinrich Julius Böthführ (1885-1890) and others.
Two of the eight co-directors had to reside permanently in Riga. Depending on the number of members of the association, one to two co-directors were elected from Estonia and Courland in each province. One director was elected from Saaremaa and the rest were from other Livonians. The coat of arms of the Society was divided into four and the coats of the Curonian Spit, Livonian, Estonian and Saaremaa were placed on it. The aim of the Society was to develop scientific activities and publish scientific creation. All members were required to contribute to the company's activities through research and writing.
The first director of Saaremaa Department was appointed in 1834. In December, Peter Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden (1787 Vila m. Muhus - 1841 Kuivastu m.). Buxhoeveden, who studied law at the University of Tartu, was already a landmark of Saaremaa in 1818. In 1818, he participated in the drafting of the Livonian Peasant Act in Riga and organized the implementation of the law passed in Saaremaa next year.
As the owner of Kuivastu and a couple of smaller manors, he also worked on practical agriculture and established an agricultural bank and a loan company in Saaremaa.
PW von Buxhoeveden was also the main organizer of the establishment of the Kuressaare Higher Noble School and the expansion of Saaremaa County Hospital. It was in 1838 that the first extensive concept of Saaremaa history appeared - from "Beiträge zur Geschichte der Provinz Oesell".
The other co-directors of Buxhoeveden were all from Livonia, although some of them represented Estonia and Courland. Carl Johann Hermann von Engelhardt (1771-1841) was a lawyer in his field, and from 1824 to 1836 he was a Landlord of Livonia. His wife, Juliane Charlotte, was the sister of Estonia's co-director Gotthard August Löwis of Menar (1801-1849).
Carl Ludwig Grave (1784-1840) was the high priest, doctor and writer of the Jakob Congregation of Riga. He was the founder and member of many societies, incl. Founder of the Riga Bible Society and Secretary in 1813-1826.
Matthias Thiel (1775-1843) and Johannes Hermann Trey (1794-1849) were also nominated as co-directors .
Trey was also a Latvian literate and gave 1832-46. a. issued a newspaper in Latvian. Karl-von Tiesenhausen and Mayor Friedrich Gottfried Timm (1779-1848) also belonged to this very Riga-centered directorate . The leading force of the Society in its early years was the well-known historian C. E. Napiersky (1793-1864).
The following persons were identified as founding members of Saaremaa:
1. Land Counselor and County Judge Karl Friedrich Christoph von Buxhoeveden (1800 Kuressaare - 1866 Kuressaare) - organizer of farmland regulation, founder of peasant schools, co-director of the ancient society Saaremaa in 1842-1861. In 1851 he appeared. The treatment of the history of Saaremaa manors in Riga - "Beiträge zu einer älteren Geschichte der oeselschen Landgüter und ihrer Besitzer" .
2. County Counselor Karl Friedrich von Buxhoeveden (1781 Muhu Võlla m. -1848 Kuressaare) - Director of the Saaremaa Economic Government.
3. Ottomar Matthias Gustav von Buxhoeveden (1801 Muhu Suuremõisa - 1861 Kuressaare) - Kärla khk. Paadla et al. the owner of the manors.
4. Erumajor Alexander Ludwig von Ditmar (1781 Pskov - 1856 Kuressaare) - Treasurer of the Greek Chamber, ambassador of the nobility.
5. Major General Georg Wilhelm von Ditmar (1789 Pskov - 1852 Kuressaare) - Later Saaremaa Land Marshal (1842-49), previous brother.
6. Alexander von Güldenstubbe (1786 Muratsi - 1848 Rome) - Landlord, Conservative president, translator of many religious images into Estonian.
7. Johann Wilhelm Ludwig von Luce (1756 Hasselfelde - 1842 Kuressaare) - a very versatile cultural figure, a member of many scientific societies and a literary production with the largest print production in Saaremaa. Already in 1817 he had founded an association for the study of Estonian language and culture in Kuressaare.
8. Karl Pontus von Nolcken (1800 Kuressaare - 1846) - Chief of Forestry, took part in two round-world trips as a naval lieutenant; already in 1836 out of the company.
The members of the newly formed cultural association had a number of culturally representative personalities, along with pastors and landlords, doctors, lecturers of the University of Tartu and others. Let's name a lawyer and historian, Friedrich Georg von Bunget (1802-1897), Professor of the University of Tartu, Heinrich Georg von Jannaud (1789-1869), Pastor of Võnnu, Eduard Körber (1770-1850; father of Martin Körber), cartographer Ludwig August Mellini (1754-1835), historian Johann Friedrich von Recket (1764-1846). One of the company's key media channels was the first Baltic weekly magazine "Inland" .
The publishing activities of the Society were secured through links between the publisher of Riga and Leipzig and the bookseller Nikolaus Eduard Frantzen (1798-1855). Born in the merchant's family, Frantzen had acquired the largest and most prestigious bookstore in Riga in 1830, Hartknochi-Hartmann, and belonged to the German book merchants union as well as Franz Kluge in Tallinn. Frantzen had links with booksellers in other major cities in the Baltic States.
In the first half of the 1840s, the Estonian Book Society, taught in Tartu, played an important role in the book story of Kuressaare. From then on, bookshelves established in other Estonian cities were equipped to make Estonian-language books more accessible to Estonians. In 1840, such business was established in Kuressaare, in addition to Pärnu, Paide, Viljandi, Rakvere and Haapsalu. At the time of the creation of this book, besides F. R. Kreutzwald, the greatest merits were Laurentian congregation Conrad Eduard Hessel (1796 Tartu - 1882 Kuressaare). In this book he organized an Estonian "peasant trader" with Karl Linnas. The difficulty arose only because the City could read, not write, and Hesse had to revise and control the warehouse itself. The city died already in 1844 or 1845; his widow Catharina (born Include) married in 1846. Simon Lange from Kiheliste.
In 1842, P. Hintze became the new trustee of Kuressaare, who for some time also advised the City in accounting.
In this way, the necessary links were established between the legacy researchers and brokers of all the Baltic suburbs, and the publication of articles and studies took place at the level of the era both locally and in Germany.
P. von Buxhoeveden and JWL von Luce, members of the Society, published the first historical and historical studies on Saaremaa. F. S. Stern, a school teacher at Kuressaare School of Education, became one of the co-workers of the Society . To complement the lithographs depicting the peasants of Saaremaa, which were valued to this day, a corresponding cultural history text was compiled. This text was created by a lawyer born in Saaremaa, baron Ludwig von Sass of the Livonian Courthouse (1824 Tõlluste m. - 1869 Gries in the Italian Alps), who in 1850 joined the Heritage Society and was elected in 1862. as its co-director. His writing was published in 1865. Leipzig, without the name of the author, is known by the title: "Studien-Skizze über die Estnische Volksschule (auf der Insel Oescl). Beitrag zur Zeitfrage" .
So far, the author of the text has been questioned, as P. von Sass has been written in manuscript as the only copy in Estonia, which belonged to the Library of the Estonian Literary Society. Since at that time none of the forenames beginning with P, von Sass, lived in Saaremaa, it is still not possible to identify the author. In fact, the acronym is probably an acronym for baron. At the end of the foreword, the author comes to terms with the time and place of writing: March 1864, the Chillon resort - that's when Ludwig von Sass stayed there.
This includes the following parts:
1) the origin, name and language of the Estonians, the situation, buildings and previous faith, Saaremaa's strongman Tõll, other coastal peoples - coastal Swedes and Danes -, the anthropology of Estonians;
2) everyday life of Estonians at that time, parenting, Germanization;
3) schools, religion, church teachers, camps before parish schools, village and rural schools, school buildings, fines;
4) the need for school education for Estonians, proposals to promote their life.
The patriot and researcher of the home island was also Ferdinand Arthur von Sass, brother of Ludwig von Sass (1837 Tõlluste m. - 1871 Tõlluste), who was co-director of the ancient society Saaremaa in 1867-1871. Just in 1865, the brothers von Sassid were also one of the founders of the establishment of the Saaremaa Research Society (Verein zur Kunde Oesels). Since Arthur von Sass was a chemist and a mineralogist, he was a doctor of natural sciences, so he was interested in the nature of Saaremaa. He published scientific articles on the occurrence of wolves in Saaremaa and Muhumaa, as well as on the flora of Saaremaa and neighboring islands. Researchers in particular consider their research on the hydrological and hydrochemical conditions in the Baltic Sea (water level, salinity, icing, etc.) to be particularly important.
The first famous artist of Saaremaa, Friedrich Sigismund Stern (1812 Kuigats - 1889 Riga), was here from the owner, painter and graphic designer of the Tartu stone printing house, Georg Friedrich Schlater. Stern had already used lithography equipment in Tartu, and when he started to go to Saaremaa he had a lithopress. Kuressaare their new print shop, he also announced the opening of the newspaper "Inland" on 16 April 1841. Both reached a new printing technique Saaremaa earlier than the venerable Gutenberg's invention. However, since the print shop needed a regular printing house, an attempt was made to establish it in 1846. Namely, "Inland" (No. 35) announced in September that the plan to establish Saaremaa as a branch of Tartu [Laakmann?] Printing house city and provincial printing house has failed. The question was also whether the aid could not be found in Riga.However, the Kuressaare litopress went on sale after Stern's death.
At the same time, Kuressaare's book trade in the middle of the century was quite advanced. In 1852, a new bookstore was established here. It was erroneously mistaken for Friedrich Richard Eupel , who was born only in 1839 (died on 1877-1879). The real founder was the versatile businessman Heinrich Johann Jürgens (1824 Tallinn - 1867 Bad Reichenhall), who since 1850. was a shareholder of C. Rahri's shipping company operating in Kuressaare.
She married Bertlia Niemann, the daughter of the older mannium of the Grand Guild of Riga.
Jürgen's activities as a book merchant continued until the early 1860s when he became the economic manager of the Riga-Salaspils railway construction and lived mainly in Riga.
In 1861 and 1862, an opportunity was offered to order "Pärnu Postimees" and "Cross National Day" from the Jürgens bookstore in Kuressaare. Apparently Jürgens continued his business in Kuressaare since 1865. operated bookseller Heinrich Theodor Lange (1835-1909), who acted as the shop owner's death. In 1872 he also bought FR Eupel's bookstore.
The necessity of the printing house was particularly well understood in connection with the plans for the establishment of a local ancient and natural society at the end of the 1850s. According to the model of partnership that began with the enlightenment era, each agency had to contribute to the improvement of the world by spreading the word. The talks with Tallinn-based printing company Jacob Johann Kelchen were probably negotiated already in 1859.
On July 16, 1860, the Municipality of Kuressaare submitted a request to the Livonian Governorate to authorize the printing house to establish a printing house. Permission was obtained and J. J. Kelchen opened his own printing house in Kuressaare. However, this fact is unknown in the history of Estonian printing. Thus, the fact that Kelchen sold his entire interior of the printing house in 1860 to Johann Arro Diesfeld, a teacher of the Tallinn Pupils' School, does not correspond to reality . Probably, Kelchen sold only part of the interior of his printing house in Tallinn, while the second part transported it to Saaremaa in 1860. It is not known whether the Kelchen printing house started to work in Saaremaa. In any case, the bibliography of Estonian-language books does not contain any Kelchen publications from 1861 or 1862.
It is believed that Kelchcn graduated from Saaremaa in connection with the establishment of the factor (leader) of the governor's office in Estonia.
However, as Jacob Johann Kelchen is the founder of Saaremaa's first printing house, he also takes a closer look at his biography.
The print was born on November 19, 1818, in Tallinn, as the son of the shoemaker Abram Kelchen. In 1858 he had three sons. From February 15, 1834, Kelchen Lindfors' heirs were Friedrich Gotthilf Montag's student-writer, but in 1853 Niguliste opened. 16 personal printers. In this regard, he had entered Tallinn as a citizen last year. J. J. Kelchen died in Tallinn on May 25, 1883.
In connection with the sale of the furnishings of the Kelchen printing house on 29 December 1862, the Municipality of Kuressaare presented a new request, this time to establish Kristjan (Christian) Assafrey in the city. The relevant decision of the Livonian Civil Governor emphasizes that the new print must first prove its professional capacity and be responsible for not printing anything without censorship. The permission of the Russian Ministry of the Interior to set up the Assafrey printing house was signed on 6 February 1863.
Print by Kristjan Assafrey originated from Vändra, two - Between and the Top - divided between the larger Pillar farmstead, where the miller was already held by his grandfather Jaan. Old John had seven sons, most of whom had to leave the farm and look for a job elsewhere. Kristjan was born on May 31st 1837 as son of Jakob (1806-1855) and Ann Assafrey. In 1839, Jakob went to the Pilistvere parish in Kabala. Kristjan Assafrey's older brother, Johann, moved to Tallinn in 1854 and held an artist and painting cadet at Viru Street in Sokolowsky. After his father's death, in 1856 he left his brother in Tallinn with a future print. Apparently, both brothers have initially received support from their father, one of the brothers, who held the greenery on Viru Street in Tallinn. One of the brothers Assafreyd was also a good friend of JV Jannsen, who was mentioned in his book "Let's Go to the City ..." by E. Peterson-Särgava.
It is not exactly known how Kristjan Assafrey was studying the printing office. He was probably working as an artist with his brother and Jacob Johann at Kelchen's printing house. K. Assalrey was known for other art crafts - photography. His activities as the first professional photographer in Kuressaare have been more and more considered as a typographer. When Johann Diesfeld's Printing House In 1862 In the first half of the year, it was auctioned by Kristjan Assafrey. (As an interim remark: J. Diesfcld was a dead man before September 1872, because his wife Wilhelmine (born Michelson) was then referred to as a deadly widow. Thus, reality reports do not correspond to the fact that Diesfeld lived a quarter of a century after his bankruptcy abroad and then returned to Estonia .)
Assafrey, as a new owner of a printing house, was granted a license to operate in Tallinn on November 4, 1862. Already in 1862. At the end of the year, "Eestirahwa mönnus Kalender" came out of a printing house at the Rehleinder House in Viru Street , which was published in several newspapers in Tallinn. A total of 13 Estonian-language publications were published in Assafrey during the Tallinn period, accounting for 11% of all Estonian-language publications at that time. He continued to print the Kelchen and Diesfeld calendars and published books such as "Casserole Casino" , F. Brandt's "Mirror of Ello and Death" and others.
In 1863, Assafrey moved to Kuressaare with his own printing house. September 29, 1869 a. he married Sophie Elisabeth Eissfeldt (1849 Kuressaare - 1913 Kuressaare), whose father was a baker from Mecklenburg, but his mother (born Falkenberg) came from Saaremaa. In 1871 the son Ernst was born and in 1873 he was born. daughter Anna Luise. According to A. Vinkel, the printing house was originally located on Kauba Street, where Eupel and Lange's bookstores and binding workshops were located. 1870 In November, Assafrey took it to Garnison Street (current house No. 17).
She also advertised her production in Estonian-language newspapers such as "Estonian Postimees" ("New Books 1867 printed in Assatrey" - 1868, No. 14) and "The Cross of the People's Sunday in the Journal" ("Launched at Assafrey in Kuressaare, at Kluge & Ströhm in Tallinn get "- 1878, No. 29 and 30).
Kristjan Assatrey died on 18 June 1874 (vkj.) And was buried four days later at Kudjape Cemetery. The company he created was operating for another ten years under the name "Assafrey Heritage Printing House". In the beginning, the company was led by a widow. searched through a newspaper ad for a young man who could be trained to print.
The widow was married only in 1878 with Oswald Gundalini, a pharmacist educated at the University of Tartu (1854 Muhu - 1910 Riga). At first, the young pharmacist seems to have headed the printer alongside her husband. In 1884, Carl Simon, a resident of Pajumõisa, applied for a print shop, but did not get approval from the city government. In 1885 it was announced that the Assafrey Heritage Printing House was doing a great variety of print jobs, while buying a variety of books and an open reading table. It is not impossible that the interior of this company was the basis for Maria Grünling's printing house, which was opened in 1891. Kubermangu t. 21, but finished already in 1893.
Kristjan Assafrey's activity as a printing press
Kristjan Assafrey's printing activity fell into a period of general revival of social life, which led to greater activity and courage in national cultural life. Estonian-language print production has multiplied over a short period of time, which can be considered as one of the indicators of the awakening of the spiritual life of the people. Although Christian spirituality literature was still prevalent, the importance and significance of the secular literary word increased significantly compared to the previous decade. This is also reflected in the analysis of K. Assafrey's 1860s production.
publications at all
|Of them Assafrey
|Ratio||Assafrey other languages
About 90 publications in Estonian were printed in the Assafrey printing house during his lifetime, some of which were re-publications. In the early years of its activity, Assafrey printed an average of nearly one sixth of Estonian-language print production (by number of titles): in 1863, 10, 1864 - 11 and 1865 in 18 publications. The latter remained the peak of Assafrey, when its share of printed publications rose to 22% of all Estonian-language print production.
Of the 83 Estonian-language publications of 1866, Assafrey had already received much less - 10 titles. 1867-868. The famine of the year was the cause of this great economic downturn, which is why the production of Estonian-language books decreased both as a whole and in Kuressaare. Assafrey apparently did not recover from the shock of the economic crisis, and his print shop showed a marked downward trend. The share of printing Estonian-language books decreased year by year, in which the relative isolation of Saaremaa probably also played a role.
The well-known publishing activity of Assafrey also fell in the 1860s. half when he funded 13 publications (two in 1866 and only one in 1868). The most frequent author of Assafrey's publications was Martin Körber, whose twenty titles (with reprints) appeared. The pastor and the developer of the song culture could also help in solving censorship problems, because the censor at that time, Carl Ferdinand Mickwitz (1811-1880), lecturer at the University of Tartu, was a cousin of M. Kõrber.
Noteworthy are the release of several popular works by local authors, Carl Wilhelm Freundlich and Peter Südda . The sixth seminar director Johann Heinrichsen and Estonian accounting officer Aleksander Julius Spreckelsen were the most translators. Also interesting is the fact that the authors and translators of a series of Estonian-language religious publications have been Nikolai Orlov, the priests of the Greek-Catholic faith in Saaremaa, Aleksandr Kudrjavtsev and others.
Assafrey was also the editor of one of the best awesome sessions made by Pöide pastor Nikolai von Nolcken. In 1871, the Russian-language article by Dimitri (Demetrius) von Meves, a senior teacher of Russian language and literature at the Kuressaare Gymnasium, appeared on the vocal peculiarities of the Estonian language.
As the number of printed publications in Estonian decreased, the printing works increasingly received orders from a local German-language secondary school. In fact, in the second half of the 1870s, the printing press was mainly a typist for the upper secondary school and local Baltic German cultural figures. Already in 1865, was himself the founder K. Assalrey kuulutuste- and messages using "Annoncenblatt", in which he himself advertising photography.
Saaremaa printing house services were used by a historian with a scientific level, Jean Baptiste Holzmayer (1839 Mainz - 1890 Kuressaare), a senior scholar of classical languages at the Kuressaare Gymnasium, FS Stern . He was active in the Saaremaa Research Society and founded a museum there. In the 1870s, Holzmayer became Saaremaa's leading figure in archeology and museology. Already before, he encouraged local literary folk tales and more. to collect folklore. In 1868, the first part of his "Osilian" was printed in the Assafrey printing house, the following parts of which appeared in the editions of the Teaching Estonian Society.
Holzmayer was also the author of the 86-page German-language brochure about Kuressaare as a mud health center, published by Theodor Lange. A list of 27 most impressive publications about Saaremaa has been presented in 1880 as a supplement to the printed light in Kuressaare and Riga. The Kuressaare card sold by T. Lange and the general map of Saaremaa drawn by Holzmayer himself and the lithographs of FS Sterni from local folk costumes and beautiful places, which could be purchased as separate sheets, are also advertised.
One important opportunity to do so was the execution of orders from public authorities at that time and the production of various pamphlets. Their traces are nowadays the most difficult to find, as it was often not considered necessary to record them as publications. One such professional Assafrey publication has been preserved since 1873, when Kuressaare Municipality has printed tariffs on all real estate. At the time, there were 256 real estate units in the city and 49 more in the surrounding villages - Toris, Roomassaare and Loode. The value of the list of property owners is enhanced by the provision of data by street.
The value of K. Assafrey's own property on Garnison Street was close to the rating scale. Some other Estonians in Kuressaare, such as Johann Raudsepp in Pikas Street, were the owner of the same expensive property, but the immobility of most Estonians was considerably smaller.
Saaremaa Museum "Two Year Book 1997 - 1998"
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On October 15, 1997, 375 years elapsed since the birth of one of the most prominent figures in the Swedish great power, the statesman, the power and wealth of the nobility, the well-educated and wide-eyed forge Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie. Among other things, the same man wore the title of Count of Kuressaare. When he was valued very differently as a statesman, the rest of the opinions have been unanimously positive. He was already linked to Estonia and Livonia through his father and grandfather, and even more so thanks to his own possessions and his active activities in the Baltic Sea. Working in the field of construction and architecture has brought his name to the history of Estonian art. Magnus Gabriel's best architects at the time of the customs were planning his palaces in Sweden and Estonia. The palaces, of which the Count dreamed and partly realized his dreams, have been compared with similar structures in Italy and France.
The de la Gardie, the proper d'Escoperie family, comes from Languedoc in southern France. Pontus De la Gardie, who entered the service of the King of Sweden in 1565, lacked any aristocratic background, although for almost three hundred years it was deeply convinced in Sweden. His father, the energetic merchant of Caune's town, had made good money and gained many new possessions, including La Gardie's herd. His earthly way ended up as a merchant-wise man, who, according to the practices of southern France, could also be seen as nobleman.
Born in the 1520s, Ponce Scoperier first studied at a monastery, soon abandoned his spiritual career and entered the army, picking up a new name for Pontus De la Gardie. He worked in many parts of Europe on the war-tandre (and there was no shortage of wars at that time), and he entered the service of Swedish King Erik XIV, a European-oriented prisoner, who received the Frenchman's two hands. In 1571 he was awarded a freelance title, in 1580. he married Sofia Gyllenhielm, the daughter of King John III.
In 1574, Pontus De la Gardie became the Deputy Governor of Livonia and in 1580-1583 he led Swedish troops in the Livonian War. In the latter, he showed himself to be a successful and wise warrior, conquering Narva, securing much of Estonia with this victory and also preparing for subjugation of Ingermanland. All these steps were the foundation stones of the Swedish great power.
In 1585, during the peace talks with the Russians, Pontus De la Gardie sank into the Narva River. She is buried in Tallinn Cathedral.
Three small, already motherless children were left from Pontus, the youngest of whom, Jakob, was born in 15883 in Tallinn. Already at the beginning of the 1600s, having barely reached the age of adulthood, Jakob De la Gardie proved himself as a successful successor to his father in the war against Poland.
In 1610, at the head of Swedish troops, he invaded Moscow, and a little later Novgorod, fought vigorously for Gustav Adolf's brother Karl Filip to be declared the Russian Tsar.
In 1617, he signed the Stolbovo Peace Treaty as a Swedish representative, joining Sweden and the Ingermanland to Laadogan.
Another contribution by De la Gardie to securing the country's superpower was paid generously to Jakob: in 1615 he became Lieutenant Count, in 1619-1622 he was Governor of Estonia and Deputy Governor of Tallinn, 1622-1630 Lieutenant General of Livonia and Chairman of the Swedish Military College since 1630.
From 1628, he devoted himself to rule, working for years with legendary chancellor Axel Oxenstern, and as a member of Queen Kristiina's Guardian Government. He did not play a major political role in the latter, but his social position was more undeniable. Successfully managing his mansion and pursuing an effective commercial business, he was one of Sweden's most representative figures of his time.
Family life flourished as well: on Jan. 1618, Jakob married the beautiful and rich Ebba Brahra, a native craze, who had been the young generation of King Gustav Adolf himself. The family had 14 children, of whom only 7 were able to become adults.
Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie was born on October 15, 1622 in Tallinn. After a few years in Riga, the family soon returned to Sweden, where his father Jakob was appointed to be responsible for army command and armament. Jakob De la Gardie was at the top of his career and was therefore almost absent at home. The management of numerous manor houses, along with all of them, and bringing up the children were on the mother's Ebba's shoulder, who was able to do all this well.
Magnus Gabriel's education began in Riga, where private teachers shared primary wisdom from Christianity, Latin, French and German. In his homeland, he became a partner of his later King Karl X Gustav. On 30 July 1634, the young Magnus Gabriel performed his first public speech dedicated to King Gustav II Adolf's memory. The speech was in Latin, the speaker was only 12 years old. Next year, the young man began his studies at Uppsala University, where he began his studies in 1635. May held his next big speech, this time in the history of the university, explaining the importance of his studies to young noblemen in terms of patriotism and moral improvement. In summary, the content of the speech was "to live among the taught is the highest life". Four years later, Magnus Gabriel was named rector illustrator of the same university . Although it was largely honorary, it took it seriously, taking part in all the meetings of the consistory, taking part in discussions, making suggestions, and so on.
1640 at the end of the year, Magnus Gabriel headed for the overseas necessity for a young nobleman. Domestic education was considered sufficient for a modest career in clerical or official careers, but not more. Those who wanted to go further had to grind at the universities both internally and externally. The first stop was Leiden in the Netherlands, where the main subjects were root, state and social sciences and mathematics (the latter was particularly important for a future warrior). Sufficient attention was devoted to speech art and physical exercise (fencing, dance, various military exercises).
In Amsterdam, at that time in a European shopping center, he made himself aware of traffic conditions, communications, trade, finance and navigation. The latter was not of little importance to Sweden as a maritime country. And of course, the young Swedish nobleman was presented in the high homes of Europe, including the Royal Palace of France. By that time, education and education had had their full effect: the young man was ,mindy, educated, fluent in foreign languages, familiar with local customs and customs, able to behave and talk to both educated men and representatives of power. She had already come along with her beautiful appearance. It all meant social success, which did not come. Before going on a trip to Italy, he still visited South France, Languedoc, to look at the roots of his family.
However, the planned trip of a young man of artistic and architectural interest to the Baroque cradle in Italy remained unanswered, as a message came out of the war between Denmark and Sweden. 21-year-old Magnus Gabriel rushed back to Europe back home for four years.
Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie, a young and beautiful, educated and European man who came home from France, soon became a close friend of Queen Kristiina, who decided to sow her gifts. His nearly four decades of political career began, with the first thirteen going uphill.
Considering himself to be a warrior himself, Magnus Gabriel wanted to become a descendant of his father and grandfather. If his contribution in this area was much smaller than that of his own, he played a greater role in the central government, and in particular in court. It can also be used to explain all the gifts that the queen shared not only as the West, but also as a variety of privileges and licenses as money, valuable gifts, and high-income state agencies. So he became a state councilor at the age of twenty-four (1647). In the same year, she married Princess Maria Eufrosyn, the sister of the future King Charles X Gustav.
The five-day grand costume of the wedding was carried by the queen personally. In 1648 he was appointed general in Germany. In 1649-1652, he was the governor general of Livonia, but aside from the queen of the king, he was also discouraged by his favor, and in 1650 he rushed back to Stockholm to take part in Kristiina's coronation rallies. Among others, representatives of the Saaremaa nobility arrived there: Matthias Stackelberg, Bertam von Billingshausen, Reinhold von Buxhoeveden, and Caspar Berg made a statement to the queen to confirm their standing interests. That was also done.
In 1651, Magnus became a state march of Gabriel, and a state treasurer a year later. The latter, however, turned out to be extremely inappropriate for him as a man accused of being robbed and restrained by the court. By that time, he had become one of the richest landowners in the country, which owned nearly 1,000 households and a dozen major palaces, from which most of the time was required to organize the property and decorate the palaces. Scouting, uneconomy and widespread court life often caused economic problems. The vanity, combined with light-heartedness, soon led to the destruction of his already delicate court position.
In the obvious fear that His Majesty the Queen would direct his mercy to someone else, he appeared in 1653. in November against the last accused. The goal was probably to hear comforting words. But they were not followed. Instead, the queen's rage and the expropriation of the former protege from the court, the surrender from the treasurer and the deprivation of several possessions. Neither did the female brother Karl Gustav, mother Ebba Brahe nor even the chancellor of the state, Axel Oxenstierna, help. Thirty-year-old Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie, who loved power, brilliance and social attention, was humiliated and pushed away.
The connections of Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie to Saaremaa fall during his period of political ascent. The war between Denmark and Sweden, which forced him to interrupt his trip to Italy, ended with the Brömsebro Peace Treaty on 13 August 1645.
On September 26, Kristiina also appointed Riga Governor Anders Eriksson as Governor of Saaremaa and instructed him to take over the island from the Danes on October 31, releasing the knighthood from all obligations and obedience to the King of Denmark. The takeover was delayed in November because in the meantime, Polish King Wladyslaw Saaremaa was trying to catch up, which nevertheless did not happen.
On September 2, 1646, Queen Kristiina Magnus made Gabriel the first royal office in Saaremaa - Elme Manor (called Magnushof in German). 1648 On June 8th, another 10 regions and manors were added to it, and on 16 September the same year, Kuressaare Castle with ammunition and cannons.
On November 25, 1648, the county of Kuressaare was the top of the donation line. The Count's title, in turn, was accompanied by enormous privileges, including spiritual jurisdiction. Magnus Gabriel was given the right to appoint the head of the Saaremaa Church, a superintendent whose rights were equal to those of the same officials in the Swedish state. On June 9, 1649, Ruhnu Island was added as a new donation.
On November 29 of the same year, Kristiina wrote a letter about licenses and a sum of up to 3000 bucks to support the Kuressaare garrison. It should not be forgotten that, in addition to these donations in Saaremaa, both Magnus Gabriel and his wife received royal gifts elsewhere in Sweden.
One of the first possessions of the young Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie was Kuressaare, and immediately after receiving the donation, he started to learn the situation here. In 1645 the Swedes had taken over from the Danes a rather decayed fortress. The walls were certain, but the furnishings were poorly preserved. Swedish Deputy Governor Johan Utter described the situation in very dark colors and suggested that the fortress be demolished at all or completely rebuilt.
1648 an inventory and a series of documents preserved in the Stockholm War Archives give an idea of the Kuressaare fortress in the middle of the 17th century. The main part of the fortress was a closed fortress built around a small courtyard in a closed cube during the bishops. At the end of the 1500s, the medieval moat and the outer ring wall were complemented by bastions that sailed south to the sea; through the bastion, the arched gate led out of the fortress. Some circular towers had a previous ring wall in the parishes.
To the north of the fortress, a small and wretched settlement, which, at the time of the Danes, in 1563, had become the city rights. Immediately after the city was handed over to the Swedes, it was devastated by another fire. In 1649, Johan von Rodenburg, a flat-rate apartment inspector, placed all his activities in Kuressaare after the inspection, as the insurance was old and the port was poor. On his suggestion it would have been necessary to build a new town on the shore of Sõrve, next to a lighthouse built by Swedes in 1646.
From a maritime point of view, they found this location much more favorable. At the same time, there was a good harbor, hidden in the storm and quite deep in the harbor of Sääre. Several manufactories were planned for processing flax, hemp, fruit and leather. The proposal was also enjoyed by Deputy Governor Johan Utter.
In 1649, the Countess of Magnus, Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie, became General Governor of Livonia. Located in Riga, he was now much closer to his possession here in the Baltic Sea. The Count sent Franz Stimer, a master builder to Saaremaa, to explore the possibilities of new buildings here. In Kuressaare, Sumer found a fortified fortress that was in disrepair at that time.
But he was impressed by its solid and good walls, so he thought it was impossible to change the medieval castle "zu einem zierlichen, bequemen und lustigen Schloss" (a beautiful, comfortable and pleasant castle). Stimer sincerely appreciates the medieval masters as the walls were erected "gerad and winkelicht auf gutem Fundament. Albereits besser stehet. geschoss mit gewölbten Gemächern mit Pfeilern wie alhie zu Riga. /.../ und ist alles gut, fest und seine stark noch erhalten "(straight and on a good foundation, better standing than it is in our day. Especially great are vaulted cellars , kitchen, bread baking and brewery, right next to each other, and the rooms on the next floor with vaulted pillars, like Riiaski. /.../ and it's all well, compact and well preserved).
Stimer offered to develop a proper castle plan for the Count, also making the corrections he intended. He planned to prepare a small model to explain his rebuilding plans. Later letters to Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie reveal that he has begun this work.
According to Stimer's plan, major rebuilding was in the fortress. It was planned to make the courtyard more spacious by eliminating the "corridors" surrounding it - crossings. There was a fountain in the courtyard. The facades were planned to be decorated with pilasters and ornaments, every four corners were to be built with a tower and balconies on the roof.
The chapel was equipped with a new fixture and new board levers for the cabinet. Medieval Gothic vaults and columns were destined to disappear, as in other rooms they were supposed to be replaced with wooden panel ceilings. It was planned to build "new fashion" stoves. The medieval stone fortress had to become more of a castle, both externally and modernized.
In front of the castle, a gate building with two side pavilions had to come out of the stone. Special attention had to be paid to the portal. The old ring wall was meant to restore the existing medieval towers and equip them with "polite domes", plus four new towers. The castle had to include a garden with alleys, pavilions, a bathhouse and a laboratory. Beauty gardening has been one of many counting interests. In the 17th century, nature was appreciated, but since everything was wild and wild, that is to say loud, attempts were made to create order and symmetry. To all of his castles, where it was possible, he let the best architects plan large gardens. Otherwise he did it himself.
While Stimer worked in Saaremaa, the Count turned to a more senior, senior of one of the leading architects of Sweden at that time, Nicodemus Tessin, who also commissioned drawings of the reconstruction of Kuressaare Castle. In 1651, Tessin had received a royal scholarship to supplement himself in Italy, France and the Netherlands. During this trip abroad, probably in Italy, she has also completed this Kuressaare project, which has not been retained, but there is a detailed explanation of the project in the Swedish State Archives.
The plan of Tessin's parent includes both the castle and the city. To a small extent, he has taken into account the existing buildings (the moat and bastion), the rest of the architect, who has never been with his feet in Saaremaa, has been completely "white".
According to his plan, the castle's three-storey main building consisted of two broader and two narrower wings connecting them. The lower floors of the facades were equipped with arches, upper with drawings. Above the inner moat, there were two obelisk or shaped marked access roads to the castle. The vaulted porch through the main facade reached the courtyard.
On the opposite side, directly in front, the arched pillar of the rear wing was opened, the sides standing on the sides. Having arrived at an oval shop, a monumental staircase began, which led to the premises in this wing - through a hall that stretches over two floors and into a chapel. From the top, this dome was placed above the stairway of the wing.
The mid-axis perspective continued over the open staircase that reached the moat, "which was very chic for walking". The front wing main staircase led to the first floor of the castle, with a dining room and a gallery in the middle. On one side, there was a flat with a guest room, an auditorium, a cabinet, a writing room, a bedroom, a study room and a wardrobe, and another half of the countless private rooms that generally copied the count. Five separate staircases on the ground floor were added to the laundry rooms, including a room with a recessed pool in the middle. There were several so-called "bass" on the floor. useful spaces, such as a kitchen with all the facilities. Both the Count and Countess Special Spaces rang from the rear wing party to the chapel. The third floor floor plan was similar to the other one.
The "explanation" of Tessin also describes the buildings belonging to the castle: the commandant's apartment, barracks, laundries, the dwelling, the master and the deputy mayor's dwellings. Bastions were about to modernize existing towers. The project also included a city plan where the main streets were designed as alleys, and the church, churchyard, town hall, command house, hospital, arsenal, etc. were placed in suitable places.
Nicodemus Tessin's older Kuressaare redevelopment plan was something new for the Baltics as well as for all of Sweden at that time. It was the first project of this kind, which he did during his foreign studies, probably in 1652, and which reflected in particular the tendencies prevailing in Italian, but also in the castle culture of France. The Kuressaare project has been considered an ideal project from its classic Italian baroque, with recognizable features found at other Swedish townships (Drottningholm, Skokloster).
The direct example of this is probably Nicodemus Tessin's younger, who realized it as the Royal Palace of Stockholm, though with much larger and richer form variations.
Such a castle, as Tessin had designed in Saaremaa without visiting the site, could not be realized here. This was also understood by the Count, who decided broadly in favor of Stimer's plan. Instead of building a completely new castle, he tried to modernize the existing one, with the help of experienced craftsmen. It was only planned to change the interior of the castle as it was considered essential, the new look was the main thing. The four corner towers and high roof balconies with open balconies had to give the castle a lively and picturesque silhouette. It was planned to increase the window openings. The walls were then designed to give a classicistic look either with stuki or with paintings. The idea of a crash's building intentions is given by the plan maintained by the Swedish War Archives, which some researchers have associated with master apartment master Johan Wärnschiöld in 1652. a visit to Saaremaa (S. Karling), others (K. Aluve) considered N. Tessin as a reconstruction project for Elder Kuressaare.
It has an old fortress with reinforced ravelins, and a city built right next to it, to protect six Dutch type bastions. The city plan is marked, where the central square was surrounded by quadrangular quarters of different sizes. The land freely adjacent to the fortress was planned for various garden facilities that the count wanted to see there.
The Count has made hand-made sketches on the plan: his sketched castle (similar to Tessin's), angular and bastion towers. Next to the castle, the Count has outlined a large pavilion with a fence and one of the largest buildings on the market, probably a town hall. He has placed various social buildings - the hospital, the arsenal, etc., on the triangular edge plots. This sketch should therefore represent the Kuressaare Count's own proposal, where it combined the elements of both the Stimer and the Tessin project. According to the last drawings, the Walloon buildings were supposed to come and also hoped to realize some of Tessin's city plan over time.
Among the drawings of the Count, one sketch sheet has been preserved, which is associated with the utilities planned by Kuressaare. Among other things, there is a skyscraper here. On the ground floor of a two-storey building there were rooms for city dwellers, a guild hall and a town cellar, rooms at the headquarters on the railroad and a large county court hall. Five high staircases were added to the portal, the façade was decorated with coats of arms of the count and his wife. Above the roof with open balcony, the height of the bell tower. The Count wrote about the construction in 1653 in Kuressaare: "Build a Town Hall on it. A tower with a clock. Surrounded by an open balcony. A gorgeous portal".
The described Town Hall sketch surprisingly coincides with one of these desires. There is another interesting drawing on the same page: a poor house with a central church with a central altar in the middle. The low chambers for the elderly were located around. The church was illuminated by the large windows above the roof. The poor house had been counted by a countless sheltered garden.
1652 In the spring, the Count began to prepare his trip to Saaremaa. He was full of determination and enthusiasm to modernize both the castle and its surroundings, creating the "en skön lustgård" (one beautiful garden). Already in April 1650 he signed a contract with gardener Hartvig Lilienthal. In a letter to Count von Thurn in October 1652, he once again asked for information about sending a gardener to Kuressaare. The landlord paid serious attention to improving the appearance and economic success of the city. In the same year, in 1652, he wrote to the Kuressaare Magistrate about his decision to build a lime and brick oven for the urban construction, a weighing plant, a mill on the Põduste River and a rae wine cellar.
The latter had the sole right to sell wine in the city, which gave it a decent income. The Town Hall was led by the Magistrates, and the Count was ready to help the builders. In 1650, Count Count in Kuressaare promised to hold two booths, one on Candle Day (February 2), and the second on the Day of Winners (August 10). These fairs gave trading rights to strangers for 14 days to both local residents and strangers. At the same time, citizens living in Kuressaare were divided into 10 classes and determined what someone could sell. In addition to the citizens at that time, there were still 150 sauna families in the city, which number the count has considered too big. Half of them were going to resettle it, but the other half had to find work in the city either as bearers, butchers, butchers, fishermen or unskilled workers. Fishermen were obliged to supply the fish market with fresh fish everyday. In order to earn additional income, in 1653, the Count drifted to the town of Tiirimetsa Manor together with 12 farmsteads in Lõmala.
Before returning to Saaremaa, where he had to deal with the great construction work immediately, Stimer received a mandate from the Count to pay for the works there. The contract has been signed with Marcus Hebel, sculptor. Construction work in Kuressaare was mainly concentrated at the castle, and the beginning of the modernization of the insurance and the construction of the town hall was also planned. Construction workers were sent from Sweden. Stimer's letters to the count show that in 1653 Frans "Timmer" and the stone runner Jacob Hansson worked from Haapsalu, plus 400 other men. In 1654, the number of construction workers was 100, whose main task was to demolish the walls of the western and southern sides of the castle.
New windows were cut into thick walls. In the summer of 1653, during the first and only short-term visit to Saaremaa, under the guidance of "Monsieur De la Rieve", part of the castle's premises was furnished for him.
1653 At the end, Magnus Gabriel had a fatal collision with Queen Christina. 1654 In spring, all work in Kuressaare stood still until new instructions were received. But they didn't come and the work was never continued. Stimer left Kuressaare's De La Gardie Castle in Ledk, where he was expecting new and great tasks. The Count's attention was drawn by Haapsalu, inherited from his father.
The same fate also hit the magnificent urban plans of the Kuressaare Count. In one of his unpublished letters to the magistrate of Kuressaare, apparently from the beginning of 1653, he announced the abandonment of the Town Hall building, but in April of that year he ordered an order to continue the construction. The volatile decisions were probably due to a change in the city's construction plan, as evidenced by the later location of the Town Hall. The Town Hall was only ready for savings and simplification in 1670. A number of lines have been found at the Town Hall, which show that the builders were no longer builders of the Kuressaare Count team and that the work was not under his supervision. The simple portal that adorns the façade is the only one that testifies to the original Town Hall project, as Stimer did with Magnus Gabriel's drawings. This is confirmed by the similarity of the Kuressaare Town Hall portal with that of the Läckö Castle Church, which was also produced by Stimer's drawings in 1659.
Many researchers have noted the relationship between the two arches, and today is the only testimony of both artistic and personal ties between Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie's two major construction projects. An asthmatic venue opposite the Town Hall was completed in 1663, a decade after the end of the county, when the city once again sank into the idyllic province of the separated province. The building itself can, however, be considered to be part of the Count's utilities program as it had ever planned.
The properties of Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie in Saaremaa were not limited to the Kuressaare fortress and the city, but encompassed all the state centers of the western parishes of Saaremaa. They are named after them in Tiirimetsa and Lõmala, Jämaja and Torgu in Anseküla parish, in Lümanda and Pajumõisa in Kihelko, Kärla and Paadla in Kärla, Elme, Eikla, Pähkla and Suuremõisa in Kaarmal, Mustjala in Mustjala, Karja Karja and Muhu. The eastern part of the island became his father's inheritance.
Already in 1645, Magnus Gabriel conducted a review of the manors there, allowing them to study all of them from a structural point of view. According to the land register, the eastern part of the island consisted of five agencies: Saare (Holmhof), Uuemõisa (Neuenhof), Maasi (Masick), Karja (Karris) and Lõve (Löwell). The book also contains descriptions of individual manors with their fields, meadows, forests and fish. This is why the Saare Manor is called the "Lustful Place" because of its oaks and beautiful views. Next to the manor there was a lake with coconut and other delicious fish. The meadows were good, but the peasants lacked firewood. However, there was enough fuel for the manor.
The fields of Karja Manor, located 4 miles from Kuressaare, have been of average goodness, more suitable for growing rye than barley. Eight meadows (reports), their position and characteristics, and the poor fishing conditions are described. At the same time, there is a notice of a mill on the river Leisi. The manor was full of wood as well as firewood, elk and lynx in forests more than anywhere else. An analogous description is also found in the Land Book about Lion.
The Muhu Authority consisted of 8 vacancies with 35 villages and 213 households. The manor house described here has been a roofed building, where only a few doors were equipped with iron bars and links, in some rooms there were simple wood stoves and only a few windows had glasses. Outside was an old brewery, a new sauna and a "härbärge" ruler with a roof. Unfortunately, it is not clear which manor house you are talking about. Here you will find an overview of the meadows, the food at that time and the household items.
There is also a list of peasants with interesting information about their family members (especially sons) and livestock. Here it turns out. that every farm had 1-3 horses, 1-4 bulls and 1-7 cows. In 1592, just under 50% of Muhu farms had been inhabited, then in 1648 they had been inhabited. at the time of the audit, only 3% of them were empty.
When, in 1650, Magnus Gabriel visited the Saaremaa estate by the master builder Franz Sumer, he was tasked with presenting the situation in the smaller manors of the county besides the Kuressaare fortress inspection. Elme Manor, which became the property of Magnus Gabriel since 1646, has been a demanding wooden house with ruins of an older stone building. The builder found that, due to the name of the manor (Magnushof), static buildings should be built here.
Kärlat praised him as a very "lazy place" with "beautiful flowing water", hunting and fishing. Stimer recommended that the manor be built. The medieval castle of Maasilinna was only followed by awe-inspiring ruins with a foundation (length 152 feet, width 28 feet) and three vaulted basements. According to Sumer, the old foundation would have been able to build a new house with relatively sluggish expenses, but he found himself a little surprising. The more he suggested the Saare Manor, which was the "best and most lively place in the country". There was a fish, a hunter and a beautiful forest that was well suited for building a zoo. The existing stone house was old and unsuitable, but a new one should be built instead. As can be seen from one of the letters sent by Sumer, the count was also in Ansüla, which also remained a plan. None of these places could be started with the construction work, as the time of Kuressaare's Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie in Saaremaa was too short.
Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie1's attitude towards land ownership has been compared to that of his father. If the latter is considered to be a trader, who valued and ruled his possessions from this point of view, Magnus Gabriel, on the other hand, burdened them with debt, pledged and sold them. In this short time he was the master of Saaremaa, he made several deals with his manors here.
In 1653, he besieged 200 adams. In addition, he carried out several exchanges: in the same year he gave 8 1/4 adrams of the parish of Kõljala of the parish to 15 households and the 13 3/4 adams of the village of Kaarma parish to the Friedrich Nolcken in the village of Keskvere, Ledika and Mönika. ) 7 1/2 landmark manor houses, 14 Adrams farmland, 20 fishing grounds and meadows.
The owner of Kaarma Parish, Mullutu Manor, handed him 3 3/4 Adrams of the same size against Randverest in Jõempa village, Kärla parish. Magnus Gabriel Laugu, Metsküla and Nurme villages of the Praja manor were given up by Magnus Gabriel parish in the parish of Laugu in the Kaarma parish. In Pöide parish, he sold 11 1/2 adrams for Otto Schulmann for 3,000 bucks, connecting them with his Tumala manor lands. As it turns out from one of 1665. The main interest of the Count was to earn as much cash as possible from his premises. But that did not mean that he had cared for them badly. On the contrary, he was constantly working to improve the condition of his manors, to decorate them, to make expensive rebuilds and new buildings. This, of course, affected his Swedish possessions.
Although Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie lost his possessions in Saaremaa by abandoning Kristiina's throne, he remained one of the largest magnets in the Baltic provinces with a part of his father's mansions, and with the compensation he had received from his brother, King Karl X Gustav. As is evident from a later letter from the king, depriving the possessions did not mean losing the title of the Count of Kuressaare. And it was not only about his own, but also about his brothers Pontus Frederik, Jacob Casimir, Axel Julius, sister Maria Sofia and son Gustav Adolf.
On July 6, 1655, in a letter from Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie, the king announced that he would restore him to the county of Kuressaare, which his Majesty promised to do. However, the real compensation for the county of Kuressaare arrived more than a year after the king's death. April 8, 1661 In the donation letter, Queen Hedvig Eleonora reiterated all the circumstances that the Count had missed from his county, as well as the King's promise to return it to him, his brothers and heirs, and, if that were not possible, to compensate another region with the same income. Sufficiently well-preserved exchange was thought to be the county of Pärnu, which was formerly owned by Thurn von Valsassina, and which De la Gardie received "as long as the county of Kuressaare was restored".
Although the county of Kuressaare was never restored, it did not mean the end of the count's possession on Saaremaa. On August 20, 1667, Kristiina, an ex-ancestor, who, after giving up the throne, had left Saaremaa as a land of profit, her former favorite Magnus Gabriel De la Gardiele Elme and Randvere manors.
Later, in 1671, he ordered Gustav Kurck, the governor-general of his commercial countries, to replace them with Muhu Island. In 1682, when the reduction in Livonia was in full swing, the Queen gave a new order: to reduce Muhu Magnus from Gabriel's son Gustav Adolf. The latter turned to the king for help, because he was "seized" without trial. In January 1683 King Charles XI ordered the rebuilding of De la Gardie in Muhu. Despite being confiscated again after Kristiina's death in 1689, Magnus Gabriel's son, who at that time held the office of Svea Courthouse and President of the Pomeranian Reduction Office, managed to keep Muhu out of his wages.
After Karl X Gustav's seat on the throne in 1654, Magnus hoped to fully rehabilitate Gabriel De la Gardie, but at least initially he had to settle for minor occupations (Chancellor of Uppsala University and Governor General of Livonia and Västergötland).
In his death bed in 1660, King Kuressaare named the Count as State Chancellor. The great knowledge, diplomatic and administrative experience, accompanied by personal charm, gave the necessary competence for foreign policy management. In terms of internal policies, assessments of his work have been very harsh. However, the contribution of Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie to the promotion of science and fine arts is indisputable. As already explained, he played a remarkable role in introducing late baroque to Sweden. During his time as State Chancellor in 1666, a royal poster was issued, with Sweden becoming the first nationally organized heritage protection in Europe, including Estonia and Livonia. At his initiative, Lund University was founded. Most reading would go long.
At the end of the 1670s, the national opposition to the State Chancellor sharpened, leading to the abandonment of an aging and ill-fated De la Gardie in 1680. There was an extensive reduction in mansions. As a result, despite his close kinship with the king himself, he lost all his possessions beyond Venngarn and Höjentorp, which were retained for him and his wife until the end of his life. For the last years of life, the first man of the former court sent Venngarn in isolation, without losing hope again. Kuressaare Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie died on 26 April 1686 and was buried in the Varnham Monastery Church. One year later, her husband, Maria Eufrosyne, also died, bringing up a total of 11 children. Only three of them came to marry, but so did daughters Ebba Hedvig (married to Oxenstienia).Catharina Charlotta (married to von Köningsmarck) as the son of Gustav Adolf died childless.
Saaremaa Museum Two Year Book 1995 - 1996
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There have been many well-known naturalists from Saaremaa through the ages. The unique nature of the islands, the natural way of life of the islanders, and the exemplary predecessors and teachers have been the reasons that inspired the learners to learn about nature and associate their profession or hobby with it. Unfortunately, many widespread expatriate non-migrant students have been attracted by the adventures of the world's seas and the shine of big cities, the juniper meadows of the home island, and rocky beaches have once again been remembered in old age.
One of the most important researchers of Saaremaa's nature was Wladislaw von Szeliga-Mierzeyewski. A man born and raised in Kuressaare felt a great interest in the nature of his home island all his life. His first and last research work included research on animals from Saaremaa. Let's take a closer look at W. v. Szeliga-Mierzeyewski's contribution to the study of Saaremaa's fauna, especially insects.
Fatal Saaremaa treatment mud
Szeliga-Mierzeyewski (also Mierzeiewski, Mierzejewski, Mierzejowski, Merzejewsky, Mershejewsky) is an indigenous noble family from Poland whose family lines branched out late in Poland, Lithuania, Podolia, Russia, Austria and Prussia.
The main character of this article, Wladislaw Laurentius von Szeliga-Mierzeyewski, was born in Russia in the province of Vitebsk as a third child of the owner of Stsiepkovo on August 22, 1841 (dates here and below according to the new calendar).
Wladislaw Laurentius, who studied medicine and obtained a doctorate in medicine, became fatal in his youth (1866) and lost his ability to move. While in Crimea, in an unsuccessful course of treatment, he met a town doctor in Kuressaare, whose recommendation came to treat Kuressaare in the spring of 1872. And in the autumn, healed here, the deeper decision to return to Saaremaa was a deeper decision.
Already next year, in 1873, Wladislaw Laurentius von Szeliga-Mierzeyewski initiated the establishment of a second mud bath in Kuressaare, which was officially opened on the midsummer day of 1876. Another important event took place in the same year: WL von Szeliga-Mierzeyewski and Auguste Jeanne Petit de Sancerre, from France, married on 3 May. The owner of the completed room "Roomassaar" Dr. med. WL von Szeliga-Mierzeyewski was at the same time a private tutor at the St Petersburg Medical and Surgical Academy, a vapor judge and a real state councilor. While living in Saaremaa, he continued to work as a court officer and was a forensic expert in both St. Petersburg and Kuressaare. In 1894 Szeliga-Mierzeyewski bought the Kusta farm in the village of Tika in Karja parish, where he died on 26 March 1918.
Living through the life of the island of Saaremaa
Wladislaw Eugen Johann von Szeliga-Mierzeyewski
was born in Kuressaare on August 3, 1882. Two years later, on August 21, 1884, another son named Gonzago Georg Alexander was added to the family. After studying at Kuressaare Gymnasium in 1893-1903, Wladislaw continued to study science at Warsaw and Krakow University. The interest in nature and science was probably given by the brothers to their father, who is remembered as a great nature lover.
Their family had frequent trips to nature, especially around their country house in Tikal. In his home garden, his father grew many exotic plants.
Wladislaw's studies were crowned with a PhD at the University of Krakow. A doctor of fresh natural sciences married on October 23, 1913, in a father's home in Kuressaare with Adelheid Ina Alice von Sassiga. They had four children: Ursula Jeanne Alice (Dec. 28, 1918, Kuressaare), Gisela Emilie Bertha (April 29, 1920, Schwerin), Irene Elisabeth Agnes (March 16, 1923 Vilnius), and Wolfgang Wladislaw Albert (May 16, 1926, Kuressaare) .
The confusion and the deteriorating health of parents and the subsequent deaths of the early World War force W. v. More and more Szeliga-Mierzeyewski is on the island of birth. It is known that in 1918 he worked as a senior lecturer at the Kuressaare Gymnasium and in 1919. was elected director of the museum of the Saaremaa Research Society (Verein zur Kunde Oesels).
It is interesting to note here that during this period, the first great evaluator of nature in Saaremaa was the first instruction from nature teacher at Kuressaare Gymnasium, Wladislaw von Szeliga-Mierzeyewski. Eduard von Toll, the author of a summary of the bird life in Saaremaa. E. v. The customs are warmly reminded of the joint excursions and the help of practical advice and literature.
At the end of the war and the normalization of political and economic conditions, the promoted doctor began to look for work and skills appropriate to his skills. which was found at the University of Vilnius in 1922. So, in 1922-1939, Wladislaw von Szeliga-Mierzeyewski worked at the Institute of Comparative Anatomy at the University of Vilnius, at least in recent years as a professor. But even in this period, close contacts with the nature of the home island and the relatives living here did not stop.
Brother Gonzago continued his studies in medicine at Warsaw and Moscow University and in 1915. A doctor's degree was founded by the father and led by the "Roomassaare" mud farm, reopened in 1923. In 1937, the brothers were transferred to the Adriatic matrix of Saaremaa.
The family still belonged to Tika's countryside. Wladislaw's family spent almost all summers on Saaremaa. The last child, Wolfgang, was also born in the home town of her mother and father in Kuressaare. W. Szeliga-Mierzeyewski long tours to different places in her childhood. In the summertime, especially in the field of performance-intensive fieldwork, he later noted the years 1931-39.
The world war and confusion that had begun led to another recession: the family moved from Vilnius to Poznan, where his father worked at Poznan University in 1939-45. At the end of the war, again, this time, finally. He moved to Brockum in Lower Saxony. Here, Wladislaw von Szeliga-Mierzeyewski spends the last part of his life of change and action until he dies on September 20, 1959, retiring. His wife, Adelheid, died on 14 October 1974. Unseen, the war-torn and repeatedly occupied homeland of Kuressaare and Taka remains, behind the insurmountable borders of Gonzago, a brother who has lost his wife in the prison camp, but came out from there in a marvelous way, who, five years before his death (March 22, 1966), worked as a mud therapist in Haapsalu; research, manuscripts, collections are lost in warfare moves.
Researcher of Saaremaa fauna
Young, Wladislaw, who entered the universities of the ancestors, packed ideas and self-realization. Along with more general science studies and later doctoral preparation and professional work on comparative animal anatomy and palaeontology, a highly educated naturalist did not forget his mission to the home island. During this period, from 1901 to 1915, he has probably gathered and prepared fish, reptiles and birds for the collections of the Saaremaa Museum, mainly during the summer holidays. After graduating from the University of Krakow, he had a firm plan to study Saaremaa's fauna in the future and to introduce it to the wider scientific community.
Thus, Wladislaw von Szeliga-Mierzeyewski prepared his first review of Saaremaa's animals, which saw the illumination in a solid publication published in Vienna (Mierzeyewski 1910). (As an interim remark, in this and in some following articles, he leaves his surname without giving the parent, and brings his first name, probably as the influence of Polish friends, to Ladislaus.)
In his review, the author counts 282 species of vertebrate animals in relation to Saaremaa, while being critical of the number of species found and aware of its future improvement. Nevertheless, Szeliga-Mierzeyewski is still the first naturalist to devote his work to the Saaremaa amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Later, he thoroughly completes his observations on birds, and this time only reveals a new overview of birds (Szeliga-Mierzeyewski 1923).
As a tribute to the life work of a man who loves the nature of Saaremaa, Dr. Wladislaw von Sziel-Mierzeyewski's youngest son, Dr. Irene, is brought together. Hans-Joachim Winkhardt once again summarizes his grandfather's findings on the birds of Saaremaa and publishes them as a publishing publication in 1995 in Stuttgart, Germany (Szeliga-Mierzeyewski 1995).
But somehow, back to the young nature researcher and his works. The research on the nature of the island island was not limited to larger animals.
The doctoral thesis was completed, Wladislaw once again turned to his schoolboy's favorite hobby - insect collection. A particularly active fieldwork year seems to have been in 1912. In Kuressaare and beyond, a well-known and highly respected son of a mud bath man, who was trained in high schools, has traveled to Saaremaa in all heels in this summer to go around with insect nets and probably from some very serious worker. Favorite places have been around the surroundings of Roomassaare, Northwest, Nasva, Järve, Sõrve, Kihelkonna-Rootsiküla, Rannaküla, Käesla, Haeska, Kaarma and of course Tika. Coming back to Krakow in autumn, he writes a series of studies on insects in Saaremaa. The manuscripts of the two works will be presented by Wladislaw von Szeliga-Mierzeyewski to the editions of Vienna's next edition next spring. They are accepted and reviews of the goal-oriented and wedge-shaped Saaremaa.
The article about Saltatoria s. Orthoptera does not name something extraordinary for Saaremaa or the whole Estonian fauna, because all the species listed are more or less common in neighboring areas. However, this is the first separate study devoted to Saaremaa's targeting: from the 25 species known today in Saaremaa, W. v. Szeliga-Mierzeyewski 22, of which 8 species at this time were first listed on the fauna of all the provinces of the Baltic Sea (Estonia, Livonia and Courland).
The researcher's thoroughness and a natural sense of steel is indicated by the finding of many species that are rarely found all over Estonia (eg Omocestus haemorrhoidalis, Tettigonia viridissima), as well as the explanation of the migration year of the locust migratoria due to the fishing done in the autumn of 1912 by many of Northwest and Nassau. Incidentally, the latter finding has been overlooked by later thirteen researchers in dealing with the migration hut. In addition to grasshoppers, shrubs, greyhounds and roe deer, the author, in accordance with his systematic tradition, also lists in his list the earrings (Forficula auricularid) of the Dermaptera Society, the cockroaches (Blattoptera) belonging to the cockroach (Blattoptera), the cockroaches (Blatella germanica) and mustard (Blatta orientalis).
To sum up, this study, which has been published for more than eighty years ago, can still be considered as a fully recognizable faunistic review.
In addition to the previous article, an article about Saaremaa wedge appeared. In a similarly structured study, the author also looks here with good knowledge of previous works on this subject and the depth of his research. As for the purposeful, W. v. Szeliga-Mierzeyewski reviewed Theophil von Polli, an insect collection of Saaremaa Research Society in Kuressaare.
The result is a list of 29 types of wedges for Saaremaa. By comparison, 54 types of wedges have been found all over Estonia today. Already in 1913, the investigator mentions several less frequently occurring species (Lestes dryas, Coenagrion lunulatum, Aeshna coerulea), which have been unnoticed in a later Estonian glory. Next year, he will donate his wedges to the Saaremaa Museum.
Here, these fast and beautiful flying insects could be left alone if there was not one kind of special attention in the article by Wladislaw von Szeliga-Mierzeyewski Saaremaa. A species whose publication in the early spring of 1913 brought long-lasting excitement to the thoughts and works of entomologists working on the Baltic Sea and beyond.
In June 1899, a seventeen-year-old girl interested in nature from a home garden in Kuressaare struggled with a great tond horse. Because of the abnormal color and body size, this male did not want to fit into the wedges that had been collected so far. After the hesitation, the specimen received a label called Aeschna juncea. Then the young insect collector was not aware that one year ago, one of the oldest Saaremaa nature lovers, namely Theophil von Poil (1844-1915), had struck a similar key from the Beach Village, and in his collection it also wrote books called Aeschna juncea. And he was far from dreaming that his own name - Mierzejewski - would be written as a baptist of this unknown form.
Years and schools passed. The unusually hot summer of 1912 in large-scale excursions in Saaremaa seemed to be an unexpectedly large presence of an unknown big rock on the steel nature viewer. From June to August, Wladislaw caught these horses from the Kuressaare city park, the Loode oak, the Tika forests, the Nasva and Põduste rivers. On the banks of Suurlaht, Linnulahe and Paadla bay, Kudjape sex, Haeska bays and Roomassaare and Loode beach, as well as several Kuressaare gardens.
In the autumn, looking through the harvest of the last summer, the long-awaited suspicion deepened - this tond hob differs from all that we have known. Work on literature and collections, and colleague consultations confirmed the news story. In March 1913, the scientific community can read the title of the publication "Aeschna osiliensis nov. Sp.", Written by W. Mierzejewski. The new species most closely resembles that of the South Siberian Tond Hobby Aeschna serrata Hagen, but is clearly distinct from the latter in terms of multiple characteristics (secondary sex characteristics, body dimensions and color, morphological characteristics).
But again, many years had passed since the war had been forcibly committed before the island hound as a scientific discovery became aware of its central classification systems, collections and publications in its bustling life. One of the first to notice the description of the new form was Finnish entomologist Kaarlo J. Valle. Originally, after Finland and supposedly Tomsk, and compared to the Aeschna serrata, it compares it to the local varietet of the nominally widespread native species in Mierzeyewski.
Quite soon, after the collection of local material and more attentive investigation, Valle corrects its position by describing specimens classified so far from Aeschna serrata found in Finland as a new subspecies of the island tondihobos: Aeschna osiliensis fennica n. subsp.
KJ Valle is also the finder and descriptor of the larval form of the Icelandic tondihobu (Finnish subspecies). Observations about the new tond horses were also made in Sweden.
After a lengthy start, the island horses are discovered again in their homeland. Hans Kauri complements the original description with his own observations and adds new distribution data from himself and E. Reinwald, E. Sitsi and V. Voore. And while the dispute over the taxonomical status of the island horse's teeth has continued to persist in the future, the principle that domestic researchers would like to see him as a Validian species, and more distant (more generally) see it as a local subspecies of Aeschna serrata, is not a priority at this time. Time and the history of science progress. It is important for us to make ourselves and others aware that one man who has grown up in Saaremaa has found something new in the area that was thought to be thoroughly long ago.
Despite the work of a lecturer and researcher in Vilnius, summer excursions do not cover the different places of the home island. Particularly vigorously, Wladislaw von Szeliga-Mierzeyewski collected entomological material and made ornithological observations in the thirties.
Among the two wildlife observers, the popular, relatively easy-to-collect and predetermined insect reviews, he took the beetles seriously. Here, the crown's dedication is the result to be evaluated. The twin article, the first part of which deals with the rare or first emergencies found in Saaremaa include the new Dermaptera, the Target (Orthoptera), the volcanic (Neuroptera) and the Lepidoptera (Lepidoptera), and the second part the Marshal (Coleoptera). ".
A total of 17 species are mentioned, of which 7 will prove to be real first quotations in Saaremaa and in the study of the entire Estonian fauna in the light of the knowledge at that time. One of the most remarkable things to be mentioned here is to mention the first of Kuressaare's baron Harry Maydell's garden, the first (and still one of the few remaining) European beetle, to be found in the summer of 1909.
However, the assumed first mention of several species is simply a recurrence of rare species, despite being used for a rather solid 17-unit literary list. The author was not familiar with several recent Estonian fauna studies. The main reason for this was probably the common practice among Estonian zoologists at this time to publish scientific works in very few publications in Estonian. There was no job left to come home, this time quite boggy and probably matured more from political than from natural science.
A beautiful summary of the Saaremaa insect review series The list of Saaremaa beetles published in the editions of the Riga Society of Natural History during the war was already in existence. As a material, the author has used collections collected over the years.
True, at the beginning of the article, he feels the lack of a whole piece of schoolwork that has been lost in school years, lost due to war, revolution and removals. Part of this loss was the gift of the cousin Günther von Rehekampff, which also contained the beetles of Saaremaa from 1917-1918. Already the above-mentioned collecting places include Pamma, Kudjape, Orikula, Leisi, Pidula, Kasti, Nétu, Putla, Kaali, Sikassaare, Tolli, Sääre, Jaagarahu, Orissaare.
Now that all the place names mentioned so far have been summed up, there is no larger area in Saaremaa where Wladislaw von Szeliga-Mierzeyewski would not have visited. In total, he lists 917 species of beetles found in Saaremaa, plus 119 different variations. So far, the work described is the only one that characterizes the entire Saaremaa beetle fauna.
It remains to be seen whether Szeliga-Merzeyewski had indeed received the criticism of Haberman in the intervening years - anyway, this time, we are reluctant to mention any kind of species status (rare, primitive, etc.), and already in Estonian at the beginning of the article, in parallel with the German place names.
Wladislaw von Szeliga-Mierzeyewski made an important contribution to the study of the nature of Saaremaa. His published insights on the island's insects are a considerable source of information for today's natural scientists. The life and activities of Wladislaw von Szeliga-Merzeyewski, and the research that has been left, show an exemplary opportunity to be a patriot of a small plot of land. Also when you carry a foreign name for this land.
Saaremaa Museum Two Year Book 1995 - 1996
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The question of burial sites for German soldiers, who had fallen in the First World War, especially in the Second World War, was one of the most delicate taboo issues in the Soviet Union, which could most likely be brought to the attention of repressive bodies at that time.
The political changes that took place in the second half of the 1980s, along with other innovations, made it possible to start looking for and organizing the warfare of the warriors from the West. The impulse to organize the neglected soldiers' tombs was provided by the German War Graves Care People's Union (Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V., Hereinafter referred to as the KGB), whose representatives provided a wealth of valuable lessons and experiences to the islanders.
Although the organization of the maintenance of the German war graves left in the Soviet territories was already on the agenda for decades at the level of transnational relations, more extensive cooperation in this area was reached just before the collapse of the communist empire.
Step by step, the politicians in the countries of the former Eastern Bloc began to resist the search and maintenance of German war graves. The first cemetery of the German War Victims Cemetery, organized by the first KGB in the jurisdiction of the Soviet Union, took place only on 15 June 1991 in Riga. This event also became an important sign for Estonia, where the first two German brotherhoods were rebuilt in Pärnu and Viljandi.
The search for German war graves initiated by the VDK was completed in Saaremaa only after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Of course, the Germans first drove things at the county government level and then at the level of the local government. As officials, Leo Filippov, a contact person at the county government level, Eevi Adoson, a methodologist for the protection of county cultural monuments, and Juhan Nemvalts, a deputy mayor of Kuressaare, were more involved in the search for German war graves and burial sites. Meanwhile, Saaremaa Union of the Union of Unlawfully Repressed Persons, the Society of Restoration and Development of Sõrve, as well as Saaremaa Freedom Fighters Association representing Saaremaa and the Society for Heritage Protection of Saaremaa, which participated in the armed struggle against the Soviet Union, were involved in these activities.
The center for coordinating all relevant information and dealing with all war graves was not developed in our county. It is therefore difficult, if not impossible, to obtain an exhaustive overview of all the activities in this area. As an on-site historian, the author of this article was included in the search conducted by the VDK shortly after their beginning, so the following could be considered a summary from experience and work done in this field, inevitably from a subjective point of view.
* * *
In Saaremaa, as elsewhere, it has been possible to distinguish two main directions in the activities of the KGB. One of them is looking for, arranging and maintaining German war graves. Secondly, the less important work direction is public relations, with the aim of ensuring that the troops of former enemy combatants maintain a positive or at least predominantly neutral attitude on the part of the local population. In the present-day preamble of the present Statute, the PSC has set out the view that the memory of the millions killed in war and violence is exhorting all peoples to understanding and peace, in the spirit of the current understanding of developed democracies. Therefore, the maintenance of war graves is not only aimed at alleviating the pain of mourners, but also at influencing modern people to use non-violent methods of conflict resolution.
As with many others, the changes in Eastern Europe at the end of the penultimate decade of the twentieth century were largely unexpected. The preparatory work on literature and archive materials was still largely undeveloped at the beginning of fieldwork, so at least in the early years it relied mainly on the information gathered by collecting oral legacy.
It was not until later, that at least the Krieger-friedhof Arensburg and Torgus cemetery, founded in 1942-1943 in Kudjap, had a rather accurate record of the German archives. The relevant documentary material was also found locally. The research carried out by Kudjapel was greatly facilitated by the photographs of Richard C. E. Kirchhoff (1886-1972), which have arrived at the collections of the Saaremaa Museum as a donation by Mathias F. Kuester, who lives in Canada.
The main difficulty of practical preparatory work In the search for German war graves in Saaremaa, since the summer of 1992, youth camps with Estonian and German schoolchildren attended our county. Germany's organization work was co-ordinated by the Lower Saxony Association of the VDK, whose CEO Hannes Merten was able to ensure smooth co-operation with all the necessary institutions. The organizer of international youth camps here was Kuressaare Secondary School No 2 (now Kuressaare Gymnasium), whose director Toomas Takkis saw the opportunity for practicing German as a language for both pupils and foreign language teachers.
Since all the bodies of those who had fallen on the German side in the battles in Saaremaa and Hiiumaa in 1941 were already buried in the early 1940s around the abovementioned Kudjape military cemetery, the core activity of the youth camps was mainly to find burial sites that fell on the German side in 1944 - both individual graves and temporary cemeteries. and celebration.
Information about them was gathered by various social organizations, whose data were collected by Eevi Adoson, a methodology for the protection of the county's cultural monuments. As an organization, the Saaremaa Heritage Society, which has been operating since its foundation at the Saaremaa Museum's Office, has become central to the collection of information about tombs, and its management has been a custodian of time.
In the search for the German war graves, the islanders have been generally favored for at least the late twentieth century. To a large extent, this kind of sympathy maximize my enemy's enemy is my friend. Many Estonians see a force in Hitler-German soldiers that entered the Second World War - albeit not for altruistic purposes - in the struggle against the Soviet Union that stifled Estonia's independence and imposed a terrorist regime here. At the same time, it is understood that the soldiers who participated in the battles had very little chance of deciding their lives, and almost all of them, who were in bed with foreign soil, were unable to survive home to fate strikes.
In a county that lost nearly a third of its population in the wake of the Second World War, refugees and several mass repressions of the 1940s, it is well understood that the maintenance of many abandoned rocks was not only dependent on the goodwill of their own in the conditions of the Soviet occupation and closed border regime.
Initially, information about war graves was gathered only through face-to-face interviews. Due to low performance, this method did not prove to be the most expedient. As it can be seen from the protocol of the Saaremaa Heritage Society's big assembly held on December 7, 1991, only a little over ten graves had been collected by that time. However, the collection work continued, but it was only after the announcement of the appeal by T. Takkis on the Saarte Hääl newspaper on April 11, 1992 that a greater momentum and broader publicity was given.
The appeal emphasized that Estonians have always respected and commemorated their dead ancestors and compatriots, which is why we should understand the desire of the German people to find out the graves of the peoples of their people who fell in the Second World War. It was noted that the war was a tragedy for all the nations involved.
Over the next two years, one hundred written notifications of various German warrior burial sites were collected across the county.
The information collection center was formed by the Saaremaa Museum's office in the Kuressaare castle yard and the majority of the co-ordination of the collection work was done by Eevi Adoson in the early 1990s. For various reasons, more important than the temporary confusion resulting from the reorganization of national heritage conservation authorities, the collection and exchange of historical information about the German war graves in our county since the summer of 1993 was gradually transferred to the museum's senior researcher Raul Salumäe, who was also in communication with VDK. Chairman of the Saaremaa Heritage Society.
Praktilised välitööd, mille eesmärgiks oli seatud haudade ülesleidmine ning nende tähistamine looduses, algasid 1992. aasta suvel. 4.-19. juulini toimus meie maakonnas esimene VDK poolt korraldatud noortelaager, millest võtsid kahekümne saksa noore kõrval osa ka viis Kuressaare II Keskkooli õpilast. Laagrijuhiks oli Ingo Müller, pedagoogide ja tõlkidena kandsid suurt osa töökoormusest mainitud kooli saksa keele õpetajad Maimu Hirvoja ja Viivi Nepper.
Töö käigus leitud matmispaikade tähistamiseks paigaldasid laagris osalenud õpilased ühtekokku 60 puuristi, neist kuus Läänemaal Kõmsi kiriku lähistel, ülejäänud peamiselt Sõrve poolsaarel ja mujal Lääne-Saaremaal. Praktilise otsingutöö käivitamise kõrval oli noortelaagri üheks tähtsamaks tulemuseks vastastikune tundmaõppimine. Oma rahvuskaaslaste jaoks olid sakslased suuresti esmaavastaja rollis, kes nimetamisväärsete eelteadmisteta omandasid vastvabanenud rahva hulgas esmaseid suhtlemiskogemusi. Teisalt aitas VDK noortelaager ka saarlastel oma senist maailmapilti laiendada.
Mõnevõrra nõutuks tegi siinseid teabekogujaid noortelaagris kasutusel olnud välitööde metoodika. Koos saatjatega umbes kolmekümneliikmeliseks paisunud laagripere sõitis iga üksikteate peale välja üheskoos, kasutades transpordivahendina autobussi. Kuigi teateid oli palju, tegeles sisulise otsingu-, tähistamis- ja kirjeldamistööga korraga vaid 2-3 inimest. Sealjuures jäid töö tulemused eeskätt pideva kiirustamise tõttu loodetust pinnapealsemaks ning suur osa laagrisolijaist ei leidnud võimetekohast rakendamist.
Siinsete abiliste poolt soovitati noortelaagri korraldajail jagada oma hoolealused kolme gruppi, mis oleksid haudade otsingutel eraldi tegutsenud. Nii oleks leitud rohkem aega kohapeal inimeste küsitlemiseks, mille tulemusena oleks nii mõnigi matmispaik saanud täpsemini tähistatud ning seega ka plaanitavaks ümbermatmiseks paremini ette valmistatud.
Kuigi otsingutega tegeleva grupi liigset suurust möönsid ka VDK esindajad, jätkus töö samal viisil ka järgnevatel aastatel. Taolist teguviisi saarlastele ei põhjendatud, ometi võis seda kõrvalseisjanagi kuigivõrd mõista. Laagri palgal oli liialt vähe pedagooge, tagamaks VDK kasvatuslike eesmärkide järgimist ka hajutatud tegevuse korral. Samuti osutus, et Saaremaal oli neil aastail veel liialt vähe vajalikul tasemel saksa keelt oskavaid inimesi, keda oleks saanud noortelaagri töösse kaasata.
Saavutamaks oma tegevusele kohapeal laiemat kõlapinda, püüdsid VDK esindajad saarlasi Saksamaa ametivõimudega kontaktiloomisel ja suhtlemisel aidata. Selles osas oli üheks tähelepanuväärsemaks ettevõtmiseks VDK ettepanekul Saaremaa Muinsuskaitse Seltsi poolt 25. märtsil 1993 Kuressaare linnuse roosas saalis korraldatud VDK esindaja Hannes Merteni kohtumine n.-ö. rohujuure tasandil asjasthuvitatutega. Umbes paarikümne kohaletulnu ees esinedes tutvustasid noortelaagri korraldajad VDK eesmärke ning vastasid rohketele küsimustele üsnagi erinevatest valdkondadest. Pikemalt vahetati mõtteid Saksa sõjaväesurnuaia taastamise, laiendamise ning ümbermatmistega seonduva probleemistiku ümber.
Koosolekul vastuseta jäänud küsimustele viisataotluste, kontaktandmete ja peamiselt sõjaväepensionide taotlemise asjaajamiskorra asjus tegi H. Merten kodumaal järelepärimised ning vastav teave jõudis asjahuvilisteni peamiselt Saaremaa Muinsuskaitse Seltsi kaudu.
Teine VDK noortelaager toimus Saaremaal 4.-14. juulini 1993. Seekord tähistati kogutud pärimusliku teabe alusel 49 matmispaika, peamiselt Ida-Saaremaal, mõni üksik ka maakonna lääneosas - Sõrves ja Kärla vallas. Laagriülemaks oli seekord Dieter Schewe, kes täitis samu ülesandeid ka järgnevatel aastatel. Seoses Maimu Hirvoja lahkumisega mandrile asus noortelaagris vakantseks jäänud tõlgist pedagoogi kohale samuti Kuressaare II Keskkoolis võõrkeeleõpetajana töötav Külli Kõvamees.
Seega suutis noortelaager kahe aasta jooksul läbi käia terve maakonna ning suurema, laiemalt tuntud ja ühtlasi kergemini leitava osa teadaolevatest Saksa sõjahaudadest ka looduses tähistada. Mõistetav, et järgnevatel aastatel kujunes kirjeldatud matmispaikade arv senisest väiksemaks, kusjuures tuli ette ka senitehtu kordamisi ja täpsustamisi. Teabevahetuse korras on VDK poolt Saaremaa Muuseumi arhiivraamatukokku hoiule antud vaid 32 matmispaikade arvelevõtukaardi koopiat 1994. aastast (26 juuli - 9. august) ning 1995. aasta (10.-28. juuli) kohta on vastav arv kahanenud 21-le.
Of course, in such a situation, difficulties were encountered in finding an application for the participants of the youth camp, despite the fact that the use of the Kudjape military cemetery proved to be increasingly possible as an auxiliary workforce for students.
Gradually, work on literature and archives began to catch up with collecting oral success in terms of performance. It was again noted that the remains of all German soldiers, who had fallen in 1917 and buried in Saaremaa during the First World War, had been buried in the fall of 1940 in East Prussia, the new Königsberg military cemetery near the Sackheim gate.
These cemeteries have been destroyed by VDK today. However, the bodies of those who had fallen on the German side of Saare and Hiiumaa in 1941 were gathered together at the military cemetery, which was founded in Kudjap, just off the grave. Therefore, the task of VDK youth camps was to search for and mark the burial sites of soldiers who had fallen in 1944.
On the basis of hereditary records, it was noted that immediately after Saaremaa's recession under the Soviet occupation in 1944, the German military cemetery Kudjapel was grounded at the command of the new powers. On the other hand, a slightly smaller western area was largely set up by the Soviet brother-in-law mocking the German plan, which has now been rebuilt several times, well-maintained.
Just over one-fifth of the graves of the former German military cemetery were destroyed in the 1970s, mostly under the extension of the adjacent civilian cave. Some German war graves, however, were destroyed at about the same time by erecting a new monument, still in the same place, to commemorate Soviet soldiers.
In the summer of 1994, the VDK arrived in Saaremaa with a two-man research group with the task of finding out the possibilities of restoring the German military cemetery that had settled in Kudjapel. The members of the group, Fritz Tschiersky and Torsten Knoche, used a small excavator ordered from the public limited company "Kommunaal" as a local auxiliary as a tractorist. Several mines were made above and around burial sites, which revealed that, on the basis of existing plans, the locations of the German soldiers' graves can be determined with complete accuracy on the ground. It was also found that there is enough room in the adjacent fenced area for the initial planned reforestation.
At the same time, the excavations carried out by Kudjapel also caused the first serious disturbances of the local population towards the activities of the KGB. Many islanders saw unnecessary violations of the peace of the dead in extensive excavation work. The management of the Estonian Heritage Board, who held the case for German self-government, was also alarmed. However, the latter assessment was an obvious exaggeration due to the novelty of the problem, as well as problems related to the internal dissemination of information and the delegation of responsibility by the National Heritage Board.
Driven largely by the excavations at Kudjapel, Jaan Tamm, the Director General of the National Heritage Board, warned the public through the information agency ETA that the demolition of war graves is punishable without special permission from the subordinate authority. At the same time, J. Tamm argued that the illegal excavations of the remains of those killed in war have already taken place in many parts of Estonia, bringing Narva, Tallinn and Saaremaa as examples.
Having previously consulted with the representatives of the KGB, Raul Salumäe, as chairman of the Saaremaa Heritage Society, reacted to the statements of J. Tamm with memorandums to the National Heritage Board and ETA, pointing out that the opening of the war graves in Saaremaa was only carried out by the VDK at Kudjape Cemetery, and with the permission and permission of the Estonian Heritage Board. .
The written approval of excavations with the National Heritage Board was abandoned only because in the spring of the same year the representatives of the relevant agency who participated in the meeting of the relevant authority at the Kuressaare Town Hall on the initiative of VDK did not see the grassland burial site as a national monument, therefore the issue was not considered by them to be within the scope of national heritage protection.
On 19 September 1994, the Inspector General of the National Heritage Board, Andres Aua, spread an obvious response to the protests received, and in a much more restrained tone, through the ETA, the announcement of tombstones, the cases of which, according to him, have been in Valga, Ida-Viru County and elsewhere.
The misunderstandings about the excavations in Kudjapel led to the clarification of the procedure for applying for a permit for such research and the introduction of it by the National Heritage Board. At the same time, the impression was that, since then, the VDK began to restrict its information to interested institutions and organizations operating in Estonia. Despite earlier promises and subsequent reminders, the VDK did not forward a copy of the Kudjapel research report to the Saaremaa Museum, explaining the word of mouth that the members of the study group were on a way back to a serious traffic accident in Poland, so the notes made on Saaremaa were either lost or destroyed.
Nevertheless, the VDK considered the information at its disposal sufficient to begin the reconstruction of the Kudjape military cemetery. With regard to the design of the graveyard covering both the Soviet and the German soldiers, representatives of the VDK reached agreement with the relevant institutions of Kuressaare and Tallinn already in the first half of 1995. At the same time, it became apparent that there were no more noteworthy reports of war graves that had not been identified so far, and the participants of the VDK youth camp turned out to be underworked.
Therefore, the students who participated in the international goodwill mission were tasked with demolishing the stone garden separating the Soviet and German war graves and sorting the limestone pieces as construction material by size. The work that had been carried out somewhat prematurely at that time was also made in response to the order, and the limestone cliffs that emerged next to the stone bed remained in the same place until next spring.
However, more extensive reorganization work started in Kudjap only in the spring of 1996, as soon as the weather allowed. The massive concrete slabs built in the 1970s to commemorate the Soviet soldiers were placed in the cemetery for the sake of completeness a little lower in the ground. The surface of the area to be reconstructed was lifted to the ground, and so far the barely noticeable tombs were leveled.
Each warrior's grave was not marked separately. The intact German military cemetery area was scattered across a 120 Volli Saia stone cutter in Kaarma's dolomite cross. The names of the soldiers who had rested in the graves of civilian cave expansion have now been captured on thirteen dolomite plates attached to the stone wall separating the cage from the civilian cavern. According to currently known data, during World War II, a total of 674 soldiers who had fallen on the German side were buried in Kudjap. Of these, 658 are also found on grave markings: 505 on crosses and 153 on panels affixed to the wall.
However, the names of the German soldiers embedded in a monument to the Bronze Sculpture erected in the memory of the Soviet soldiers and placed in the immediate vicinity of the monument, are unfortunately not somewhere. Among the many foreign names, we can also find seven Estonian volunteers who fell on the German side in 1941, two of whom are unfortunately unknown. By judging by names and troops, the Germans may be more or less likely to separate up to five Estonians who have fallen into war.
The solemn embellishment of the reconstructed Kudjape military cemetery was reached on July 20, 1996. For this event, guests from several buses had arrived from Germany, among whom the relatives of soldiers killed in West Estonian islands during the Second World War. The commemoration day began with an Estonian and German memorial service at the Laurentius Church in Kuressaare, where the pastor, Theo Hasselblatt, was the master of both languages as a guest from Germany. After the worship, Kudjape Cemetery headed for the ceremony of the commemoration of the new memorial facility with the speech of Bernd Mützelburg, Ambassador of the Federal Republic of Germany, Adorbert von der Recke, Mayor of Lower Saxony, and Ülo Vevers, Mayor of Kuressaare. As a central monument to the Great Iron Cross erected in memory of the fallen on the German side, the Saaremaa Defense League stood in the apostrophe.
In the sermon before the incarnation of the memorial facility, Pastor Theo Hasselblatt stated that there was so much misunderstanding in the world that people felt sad and guilty. He called on all to overcome these death barriers and forgive each other. The performance of Kätlin Ivalo and Stefan Kühne, who spoke on behalf of the participants of the VDK youth camp, also sounded an effective conciliation message. As a sign of reconciliation efforts, the VDK took wreaths at the foot of the memorial ceremony at the foot of the monument set in memory of the soldiers killed in the repressions by the Soviet armed forces and the communist alien.
The same summer, on August 5, 1996, Wolfgang Dietrich and Klaus-Peter Schug, specialists of the KGB, arrived in Saaremaa with the task of commencing the identification and resettlement of German soldiers in Kudjapele as a result of the multi-year work of Estonian-German youth camps.
Established in 1994 by the Center of Estonian War Graves in Pärnu, the service was maintained by Urmas Esna and photographer Ain Krillo, who was assisted by German specialists. In addition, Sulev Salong was involved in the work of the group at Saaremaa.
As a result of nearly a month's work, the remains of 262 soldiers who died in 1944 were dug in our county. One of these findings was declared by the excavators to be the remnants of the Soviet soldier and was buried by the Torgu rural municipality government and the National Heritage Board with their arms brothers. The remaining 261 were buried in numbered plastic bags wrapped on September 3, around the Kudjape military cemetery. No solemn ceremony was held for rebellion, as the KGB representatives did not consider it necessary.
As a result of the work carried out by the Resettlement Group in 1996, it became apparent that there was no real need for the extension of the originally planned Kudjape Cemetery. If, in the summer of that year, the VDC apparently calculated on the basis of estimates made on the basis of oral legacy in the future about two thousand rebounds, the results of late summer surveys revealed that the total number of German soldiers to be resettled after the Second World War could rise to near 500. In his conversations with Tõnu Sepp representing the National Heritage Board and Raul Salumäe, who was present at the museum as a museum worker, W. Dietrich stated that the field tombs were marked by youth camps, but often with insufficient accuracy. Therefore, finding burial sites, even in the vicinity of large killer sites, has sometimes proved to be an overwhelming task.
For example, near the battlefield of Tehumard, only the remains of nine German soldiers were found and excavated. As the biggest venture, all the remains found in a burial site near Torgus in 1944 were buried, the identification of which probably did not cause any particular problems due to the existence of a proper graveyard plan. The excavation work was just underway in Kargis, where the remains of the Kudjap were replaced by the remains of only ten soldiers, but the excavations had to be interrupted due to the high status of the ground water.
There is still no grave markings bearing the names at the site of the new burial site of the Kudjapä landed in 1996. According to the re-casting group's opinion, it would take about a year to complete the processing of the data obtained. Unfortunately, real life has made its adjustments in this hope.
In response to an inquiry made on behalf of the Saaremaa Heritage Society, UD Paschke, a member of the Construction and Maintenance Department, announced on December 15, 1998 that protocols on rebellion had been developed by the VHC and forwarded to the Deutsche Dienststelle, a recent information center in Berlin. The establishment of grave markings is therefore now dependent on the speed with which the body can process the material submitted to it. It is clear from the same letter that the VDK does not consider the rejection work to be completed, referring to a high water level burial site where a longer dry period is required to carry out the work.
During the commemoration of German war victims, who had fallen in a foreign country, inevitably came up with different cultural beliefs, as well as misunderstandings arising from the political circumstances of each country. In retrospect, there is reason to note with satisfaction that, as a result of mutual aspirations, the dissenting opinions of the islanders did not bother with the representatives of the KGB.
In the course of the German war graves, a noteworthy fact was that a large part of the population here respects the grave as a burial site, above all where the dead flesh becomes soil. Reports were received from different parts of the county about the exterior gardens of the First World War, despite the fact that the remains of the soldiers were taken to Germany already in the autumn of 1940.
At the same time, reports of temporary burial sites in 1941 were extremely scarce, and finding additional information to find out the location scheme found in the German archives found near the Kuressaare-Kuivastu road near the Luuguse estuary station was surprisingly arduous.
The opening of the tombs of KDjapel carried out by the KGB in 1994 influenced many islanders as a rather frightening undertaking. Although excavations performed by the excavator seemed to be a sacrifice not only to the Director General of the National Heritage Board, Jaan Tamm, the violation of the deaths of the dead was largely a matter for the Germans, all the more so as it was not known that no Estonian grave was opened during the studies. However, it seems retrospectively that instead of the active effort to date, the attitude of the islanders towards the VDK began to become somewhat restrained since then.
The alienation of the inhabitants here was further aggravated by the rebellion of September 1996. While in 1994 there were two kinds of small coffins for the interested - plastic and cardboard - for the remains of relics, in 1996 the rebels only used plastic bags, which were buried together with the bones of the packed soldiers without the ceremony of naming the Kudjape Cemetery.
The archipelago, who was accustomed to the abundance of Soviet soldiers' brother-in-law, was also hard to understand why it was necessary to liquidate the former cemetery of a former hospital in the Torgus, which was more or less intact.
However, the German people have not been honored by the respect of human remains, as a stranger. After the fall of the Iron Curtain more and more often by German tourists visiting our county, one of the most sought-after sights has been the graveyard of Pöide's graveyard, writer Walter Flexi (1887-1917).
As a general manager of the 30-year-old reserve lieutenant, W. Flex was severely wounded near Oti Manor on 15 October 1917 during his struggle for Saaremaa. A day later, he died of the injuries he had received and a foreign soil was dropped into Pöide's cemetery. After the death, in the years between the two world wars, the soldier who died as a warrior became a huge member of his home country. His first personal work "Der Wanderer zwischen beiden Welten" ("The Traveler Between Both Worlds"), which appeared for the first time in 1916, rose to sixth place in World War II Germany, and the poem "Wildgänse" ("Wildgänse") by Robert Götz (1892-1978). Wild Goose ") is well known amongst the Germans as a journey of traveling today.
At the same time, the work of W. Flex is not considered to be compatible with the anti-war trends of modern Germany due to its struggling patriotic attitude. Therefore, the representatives of the KGB were distant from all the affairs of this writer, and there was a clear relief to the fact that the remains of the ever-glorified writer were taken to Königsberg during the rebellion at the end of 1940.
However, quite forgotten W. Flex is not. In many parts of Germany, first and foremost, the older generation, known as a writer, resembles the streets named after him. The monuments erected to commemorate the German soldiers who fallen in the First World War can often see quotes from Walter Flex's work. The first central monument of the Kudjape Cemetery, built in Saaremaa during the Second World War, had two lines, without any reference to the author's name, of W. Flex's poem "Dankesschuld": ("To get my hand, thank you, you silent man.")
Almost shortly after the opening of Saaremaa to foreign tourists, there were Germans who were looking for the fate of W. Flex's old grave. After all, the traces of the far-fetched care of the distant guests could be seen more and more often at the former burial site.
As initial signs, two half-meter-high columns of limestone without a mortar were erected in the tomb at the top of the tomb, at which the passers-by could see the bouquets or even the wreath. In 1995, one of the German schoolchildren group W. Flex, who defined himself as a "Wandervögel", placed a grave on a birch tree cut with a knife cut off from a birch tree, and somewhere in the Second World War found on Saaremaa battlefields.
Despite the fact that the tomb of W. Flex was becoming one of the most important attractions of Saaremaa for German tourists, we tried to take into account the attitudes of the KGB in the issue of memorizing the writer's memory. Saaremaa Heritage Conservation Society already received the first proposals for the installation of a memorial plaque or stone for the writer's grave in 1995. However, due to the political problem of this venture, it was expedient to delay a new grave mark, more precisely, to set up a canoe.
V.K.J., a joint-stock company for the donations gathered in Germany near Kuressaare. The memorial stone made in the stone cemetery was placed in the Pöide cemetery only in 1997, in connection with the festive celebration of the 110th anniversary of the writer.
VDK did not take part in commemorating Walter Flex. The Saaremaa Heritage Society, which organized the event as an external cultural association of political parties and national authorities, took all responsibility for the possible consequences of this venture.
Understanding the political problem of post-war Germany proved to be the most difficult task for the islanders involved in searching for and arranging war graves. In connection with a visit to Saaremaa by a well-known German philosopher Iring Fetscher in 1995, he was informed in the same year by his memoir "Curiosity and Furcht" ("Neugier and Furcht") 14 that 9th Grenadier Regiment was involved in the struggle against the Soviet army in 1944 also later German Federal President from 1984 to 1994 Richard von Weizsäcker.
As a traditional information exchange, Raul Salumäe, as historian, also drew the attention of the representatives of the VDK, proposing to invite, as a 24-year-old captain (Hauptmann), on 24 November 1944, during the evacuation of German troops who had been present in Saaremaa, to commemorate their fallen soldiers.
However, the highly respected guest was unfortunately not coming. According to Mr. Merten's information forwarded to R. Salumäki by word of mouth, VDK's invitation to R. von Weizsäcker was indeed communicated. There was no direct contact with the addressee himself in these cases, but his office was asked to understand the fact that the former president reminds him of his former warfare with extreme reluctance.
Since the autumn of 1996, VDK's interest in Saaremaa began to blur. Most of the set goals had been exhausted by then. 6-22 In August 1997, the sixth and probably the last youth camp organized by Saaremaa was organized by VDK. As there were no new reports of war graves as it was, campers were found to be used mainly for maintenance work at Kudjape surnuaia, at the Püha kiriku, and for helping disabled people.
Although the links between the islanders and the VDK have not been interrupted, the problems to be solved have remained relatively limited. In addition to organizing the maintenance of the Kudjape Military Cemetery, only the erection of grave marks on the same resettled warriors and the organization of the repairs to the burial site in Kargis or the transfer of the remains buried there are more acute.
The searches of the German war graves gave the islanders much needed thought over the constant values of life during the great political changes. The experience gained in communicating with the VDK enabled the local people to set their minds on the cemetery culture. The reconciliation message forwarded in the search for and repositioning of grassy soldiers' troops has undoubtedly helped to prevent vandalism against the tombs of the opposing party, that is, the fallen soldiers of the Soviet Union. For Estonians, however, the contacts with the problems of the foreign cavalry cemeteries have proved to be a gratifying impulse for searching and organizing the burial sites of the fallen sons of our people.
Saaremaa Muuseumi Kaheaastaraamat 1997 - 1998
The ancient times of Saaremaa, Gothic and Kuressaare classicism are well-known concepts in Estonian art history, the shadows of which have been left in other periods. True, in the Estonian context, the Saaremaa Renaissance and Baroque are not so talkative, but very interesting finds can be made here.
The following piece follows the three-part work "Oesel einst und jetzt" (1899-1915), published by M. Körber 100 years ago, in which the author describes prominent artistic monuments in Saaremaa's sacral building. The estimates are rarely given by Körber, with the exception of the only altar of the Anseküla Church, over which he could have a great deal of reflection, being the pastor of the same church.
The primary source for the study of the church interior is the protocol for church disposition, part of which was the survey of the church equipment.In the Estonian Historical Archives there are not all of Saaremaa's churches and every visitation, but the existing ones are accurate and thorough.Martin Körber's above-mentioned book is of paramount importance. A purely artistic-historical overview of Saaremaa's churches was written by Körber's contemporary W. Neumann (Neumann 1908).
A new time - reformation led to reorganization in church liturgy. The basic differences between the new and the old church were reshaped by the Catholic Church, the sanctuary, the Lutheran - a meeting place. Such a change gave impetus to the transformation, first of all, in the interior of the church, only then in foreign architecture.
The latest research on the architecture of the Estonian Reformed Church was published by Krista Kodreselt (Kodres 1995). The interior of the church is reflected in the Sten Karling monograph (Karling 1943), in terms of style history, and only in one area - wood carvings. The parallels with the neighbors make it possible to draw on Inga Lena Ängström's doctoral thesis on Swedish altars (Ängström 1992) and Boris Vipers' study "Baroque Art in Latvia" (Vipers 1939).
Saaremaa was in Sweden during the observed period in two countries, Denmark and from 1645. Since both countries were Lutheran, there were no significant differences in church organization. In the visit to 1647, "Bishop Jhering had to admit that the religious and religious-spiritual condition was better in some respects than in the way".
If the architectural thought remained conservative, the interior was taken into account with the requirements of the new time. The church was made active and therefore the clergyman had to be well visible and audible. Similarly to the early stages of Christianity, the division of space became a clear border. In the visual center, on the eastern branch, there was an altar. In the list of Kärla Church inventory, the altar location is specifically localized: Im ersten gewölbe, ais im Chor.
The importance of the problem is illustrated by the fact that King Karl XI himself, who decided that the altar should be arranged in accordance with the orientation of the traditional choir room in the east of the church, was interfered in the controversy in Sweden. This was a novelty with the St. Catherine's Church in Stockholm, because the sanctuary was a central room solution, where, according to architectural logic, the central area was the most important. The pulpit was the equivalent of Altar. which was usually located near the crossroads of the building and the choir or near the sidewalk of the church. That was the way Kärla: Am der Norder, from the stein Cantzel won the Bildhauer Arbeit.
The pingists became important because, in the church's eyes, all members of the congregation were equal and had to sit down. In practice, the layout of the benches was still hierarchical with the chancellery and the altar. Empoor was introduced as an innovative element. On the one hand, the empoor (the balcony) church members had the opportunity to get to the service as close as possible to the service, on the other hand, the orchids that sounded in the balcony had a deeper impression on the listeners and carried them to the heavenly sphere. Later it becomes prevalent that the organ was placed on a balcony built on the western wall.
According to a study by Krista Kodrė, the visits of the 17th century to the churches of Saaremaa are not mentioned. It distinguishes Saaremaa from other Estonian churches. One of the reasons for this can be the relative size of the parish churches, therefore, there was no practical need for the people to be placed further, on the other hand there were no organs in the orchestras. Some of the existing things were lifted; In the common practice, the baptismal stone was brought from the entrance (west side) to the church room, beside the altar. Some of the items that lost their practical significance, such as the hangman and the sidewalks, were taken out of the church, but the bolts were consistent: in 1675 there was still a chapel in Jämaja, the altar of the church of Kaarma remained in the church building.
Next, let's look at one element of the Protestant Church interior - the altar. A more precise name would be a retable, or an altar wall, that is, an armchair on top of or above the altar table. Church building was an expensive project that the Livonian nobles did not want to take on their own, but the erection of the altars and chanceries was a way to represent them. Moreover, the church was far more public than the manor, and emphasizing the status of itself here is important.
Originally, the retailers continued to retain the shape of a medieval hideout, where, after the opening of the wings, a spectacular sight appeared that would undoubtedly affect the praying person. In Estonia, the most typical example is the Harju-Madis altar (1631). It may be assumed that the altars of the Kihelkonna and Kirla churches functioned in a similar way. Probably also the Varbla itself, at least so can be deduced from the three plaques depicting the birth of Christ, the Holy Dinner, and Christ's heaven.
Based on the experience of the author, supported by Inga Lena Ängström's study, such a combination of combinations in the Lutheran church was used only for horse-drawn winged whales. Hiding the central event behind the closed doors is also evident in the altars of a new type, classical Renaissance building, multi-storey, vertically-readable altar. The image of the Holy Supper in the middle zone of the Koeru church (1645), in the middle zone of the church, is on the side with retained details of hinges and locks.
The theme accepted by Lutheran was narrower than that of the Catholics, but did not differ much from the two denominations depicted on the altar wall. At the same time, the saints depicted retailers in the 16th century, both in Lutheran and Catholic churches. The Lutheran church focused on the suffering of Christ, the preferred topics were the Holy Communion, Kolgata, the Resurrection. In part, there was a significant stimulatory effect of art on human imagination. The exhilarating spirit was willing to part in the revelation. On the other hand, art was illustrated in the scriptures.
Martin Luther realized the necessity of concretely declaring the word, which rejected the original idea of denial of revelation. Mr Luther suggested that if there is a picture of an altar on the altar, then this is the Last Supper. The Holy Spirit felt more clearly in front of the eucharistic image before Christ's body and blood. In Estonia, one third of the 17th-century altar paintings are depicted with the Holy Supper image. This is due in part to the fact that this kind of understanding was also understandable with respect to the faithful peoples.
Renaissance Salt acquired the architectural, Italian palace facade or antique triumphant shape. The altar of Giovanni Marigliano (1488-1558) in the Church of Santa Ana dei Lombardi in Napoli is considered as a typical example of a three-part altar with a vertically rising heart. In Italy, the effects of antique art were very strong, and it is therefore natural that the idea of triumphalism was borrowed from the Romans from the old times to express Christianity's victory.
This form is illustrated by Donatello's tabernacle with Mary's announcement at the Church of Santa Croce in Florence. The designers of the Idea Town designers have been practicing harmonious applications in every field in their practical life. Brunelleschi, the brilliant designer of the Florentine Dome, recommended the standardization of altar frames. The Triumphal Altar Frame was the best option for this.
Baroque art added motivated proportions of persuasiveness and efficacy, both with realistic sculptures as rich and lush ornaments.
The most magnificent altar wall of the Estonian high-baroque was the Märjamaa church (1689), originally from the Christian Ackermann workshop, containing volumetric acanthus leaflets, sunflower seeds, lillevans, knorpelornaments and figuratives. The simplest retails were plain tablecloths with a pair of pillars or a decorative frame (Anseküla, Pöide, Reigi, Järva-Madise). On the other hand, the most decorative ones were multi-storey altars with a vertically inclined hinge, pairs of piers and many sculptural figures led by proclaiming Christ's rebirth (Ambla, Haapsalu, Keila, Koeru, Kolga-Jaani, Lüganuse / destroyed / Martna, Palamuse, Ridala, Simuna, Türi, Vigala, Vormsi / partially preserved /).
The baroque chalet, a direct antiquity Nordic variant, was developed in Estonia at the end of Swedish time (Tallinn Cathedral, Swedish-Mihkli Church). In Saaremaa this type of altar became dominant only in the 18th century, when the example was already taken from Riga (St., Pöide, Muhu (?)).
Altars and chancelleries gave both churches and nobles the churches. Often, a fictitious work of art was erected in memory of his lost memorial.This act was also an expression of the goddess of donor. It was characterized by Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie, who donated over 30 altars to the churches in Sweden and the Baltics. In the early days of the advent of lutheranism, Protestant Scandinavian countries may also point out another tendency: the altars of the Catholic person or form were erected in the Roman Catholic faith in the memory of their lost husband, and thus showed their sympathy against it.
An example of this is the Kärla altar, although the author does not have any data on the education of Anna Overläcker. It is interesting to conclude that this retailer is similar in type to the Flemish altar donated by the Swedish nobility in the Trosa County Council and Bettn Church.
However, it is rather risky to share the altars of a similar age with Catholic and Protestant ones. The artists tended to prefer the so-called. Catholic role models that spread as Flemish engraving mappings. Widespread was the Bible Thesaurus veterina et novi testament (1585), known as the Piscatorian Bible, which was in fact a major graphic collection for the Antwerp Manerque Maerten de Vos (1532-1603) and its influential artists' drawings, first published by Gerard de Jode.
The widespread distribution was provided by the Visscher publishing house in Amsterdam, where it was re-issued in the 17th century. The Icons biblicae (1625-27), which according to the publisher's name is called Merian's Bible, is also included in the Dutch examples. It was printed in southern Germany, but its publisher Matthäus Merian was a Dutch engraver associated with family ties, who had been relocated to Frankfurt.Estonia is dominated by the so-called. Hendrich Goltzius (1558-1616), whose Passion Series (1596-1599) inspired his students Jacques de Gheyni (1565-1629), Jacob Mathami (1571-1631) and Pieter de Jodet (1570-1634).
The so-called Goltzius also includes Bartholomew (1571-1619) and Zacharias (1561-1604) Dolendo and Willem van Swanenburg. We have several sacred lands (Reigi, Tuhala, Saaremaa Museum) based on Zacharias Dolendo and Jacques de Gheyni's 14th Edition Passage Cycle Carel van Mandder (1548-1606).
According to the study by Pia Ehasalu, in the 17th century in Tallinn, trading and collecting graphics were common. By preserving painting, it is highly likely that the copper sections of the printers listed above will also be circulated by local masters.
German-made woodcutting sheets were considered dull and boring. Independent, without example, the altar area practically does not exist in Estonia and Livonia. Boris Vipers by so-called Compositions that are attributed to the original Livonian folk art, all of which are nowadays adaptable to one or another graphic example.
The question of the altar originates from the foregoing. For the elder altars (Kihelkonna, Kärla) it is obvious that they are imported to the island. In the 16th and 17th centuries, luxuries were purchased, and perhaps art works still exist in Lübeck. In 1635, the archives of Kaarma Church were brought to the archives. However, such recordings are rare, the stylistic policy remains the key to determining the origin. To a large extent, the results of this method are still subjective. This is also illustrated by estimates made over the last half century by the Kärdla altar.
Sten Karling admits that part of this altar is likely to originate from northern Germany, between Danzig and Königsberg, where there were widespread hermi-lyster, rhizomes, urns, and the like. The use of motifs from the underground renaissance art ensemble, originating from Cornelis Floris and Vredeman de Vries ornamental grasses.
May Lumiste, on the other hand, assigns the same work to the carving engineer Tönnies Evers (1550-52 ... 1613), whose style was also heavily influenced by the late Renaissance of the lower reaches.
Compared to the other artist's other work with Kärla, it is difficult to see one master's hand. The soldiers' figures at the Evers' late castle from the Lübeck Town Hall War Room (1612) are monumental, tendrils of naturalism with antique soldiers' rigors, with body manipulation. The ornament of rifle pillars is compilation of virtuoso. To date, Lübeck's valued and self-confident champion has been labeled all his work with the emblem of the head of the lily and the metropolis, and has been thoroughly documented. Despite the fact that both S. Karling and M. Lumiste localize the origin of the altar to the southern shore of the Baltic Sea, they have not provided sufficient reference material so that we can accept their views. The scarcity of material does not add anything to the foreground.
The presence of Latin and sub-German texts in the wings of the Church of the Kihelkonna Church does not allow the Danish origin to be attributed to it, although, unlike Sweden, long explanatory texts were added to the altar there. According to Latino Marju Lepajõe, the Latin language comes from the 16th century, so the text boards are synchronized with the central board. Taking the text as the first reference to positioning, the origin of high-quality artistic quality paintings should be sought from some of the lower art Arts Center. But of what, it will remain a task for the future.
The chanceries of the Balthasar Raschky branch, operating in Kuressaare, show a good masterpiece and data from the cousins of the Kuressaare chisels and glass workers dating back to 1642. Nevertheless, the participation of local masters can only be assumed in the case of simple-shaped altars of the Anseküla and Pöide Church and naive altar shots. Only the new altar of the Holy and Simultaneous Pöide Church (destroyed) from the middle of the 18th century was added to the master of Kuressaare, Gottfried Böhme.
Altars in Saaremaa churches
Anna Overläcker gave the church an altar in 1591 to commemorate her missing husband, Otto Buxhoeveden, the county governor of Saaremaa (dead 1575). The list of the Church's equipment reveals that the altar was located in the first chariot, that is, in a chorus, it was made of wood and "colored in every color". The altar had two wings.
Martin Körber refers to the existence of wings: "Auf der einen Flügelthür des Altarblattes", but they do not describe them more closely. It seems that M. Körber has trusted more sources of archival material than himself, since the hidden text of the backside of a brick wall on the wall of the church was quoted simply by reference to archival materials. According to S. Karling, the altar wing has been mentioned in the list of churches in 1775. Therefore, the altar of Kärla was a kappaltar.
The inventory page does not have any hint at the altar, but a carved medallion, and the detailed text of the information from the donator is proof that this is probably the same piece of work that we now know as the epitaph of Buxhoeveden, and is moored in the eastern wall of the current Kirla Chapel (1842).
The text in the poddle zone has been updated but was unlikely to be changed. It's hard to say something about the wings of the Altar. The idea is that the images of Adam and Eve displayed on the Saaremaa Museum at the moment, with six pictures of Christ's passage on the inside. On a visual observation, they can not be considered earlier than the 17th century. However, the proof of this is the prototype of a single cartridge - the engraving of Zacharias Dolendo, which was probably completed at the beginning of the 17th century.
The Kärla altar is a pseudoalabasteraltar type. The name comes from the fact that he snuffles the Flemish-born retaets, where the central embossment was carved into the alabaster. Such a valuable work was disguised as n.ö. the closet Late insertion of wings is not conceivable, since the creeping stone was thrown away by new fashion trends.
The excellent performance of the woodcutting of the Kärla altar was noted by S. Karling and M. Lumiste. The altar of purée (soft and light) is probably thought to be a sculpture of Kolgata. John is on the right, Mary is on the left and Mary Magdalene is kneeling. On the cross on them is Christ. All figures are almost full-blown, the city has a low relief in the background, but accurately cut.
The faces of the figures are soft and breathless, while excessive emotions are avoided. The viewer opens like a doorway, and should be grateful to see what is happening. N.-ö. At the "doorway", on two sides in the corners there are foam with indifferent faces, they do not see what happens underneath them. Although the Altar of the Church of Kärla is a rare individual example, it greatly reflects the landscape of our Renaissance art.
The altar of the Kihelkonna church is unique throughout Estonia, both in its age (1591) and in terms of subject matter, being the first altar of the Holy Supper image in Estonia. In his design, he still has a Triptych in the late Gothic tradition, but adding textboards to a central image with a picture has already been a sign of a breakthrough in the Renaissance. The sidewalks have the text of the Sacrament of Holy Communion in Vulgate and Low German:
DOMINVS NOSTER ISSUES CHRISTVS IN EA NOCTE QVA TRADITVS EST ACCEPIT PA-NEM ET POSTQVAM GRATIAS EIS: SET FREGIT ET DEDIT DISCI: PLEIS SVIS DICENS: ACCIPITE COMEDITE: HOC EST CORPVS MEVM, QVOD PRO VOBIS DA: TVR, HOC FACITE IN MEI COM: MEMORATIONEM. Unser Her Jesus Cris: tus / in der Nacht da Er werhaten ward / Nam Er das brot / Danket und benck es / und på seinen Jüngern / und Sprach: Nemmet ein und Esset / Das ist mein Leib / Der für euch gegeben wirt Solches thüt zu meinem gedechtniss.
SMILITER ET POSTQVAM CENAVIT, ACCEPTO CALICE, CVM GRID EGISSET, DE: DIT ILLIS DICENS: BIBITE EX HOC OMNES, HIC CALIX NO, VVM TESTAMENTVM EST IN MEO SANGVINE, QVI PRO VO: BIS EFFVNDITVR, IN REMISSI: ONEM PECCATORVM, HOC FA: CITE QVOTIESCVNQUE BIBE: RITIS IN MEI COMMEMORATIONEM
Desselbigen gleichen Nam Er auch den Kelch / Nach dem Abendmal dancket und gab ihn den / und sprach Nemmet hin und trinket alle darauf / dieser Kelch ist das Neue Testament in meinem Blut / Dass für euch wergessen wirt / zur vergebubg der Sünden Solches thüt So forft jes trinket zu meinem gedechtnis
The transition from the central board to the slice is also marked by the text: Das brot das Wir brechen / ist das Nicht Die gemeinschafft des Leibes Christi / Des gesegnete Kelch welhen wir segnen / ist das nicht / die gemeinschafft des blütes Christi. 1. Corinth: 10.
The wings have text only on the inside and the outside is painted monochrome. Altar has no bugs, therefore, the closed position may not have been foreseen any more. So far, the altar is anonymous. And despite this, the initials left in the uprights of the central board
AGV and LVN
Altar frame is over painted. It is blue in color and blue in color from the edges. This paint layer may be secondary and belong to the end of the 18th century, which is the time when the chancery was renovated (1796). The altar beetle is a curly slice, and sculptural allegories Spes (Hope), Caritas (Love) and Justitia (Justice) create the top and the corner. The sculpture is the Christ's resurrection painted on the horizontal tables.
Similarly to the Kärla altar, Kihelkonna altar is one of the most endearing works of its time in Estonia.
Anseküla and Pöide
The new time and fashion are represented by the Pöide (destroyed) and the Anseküla altar. They are modest representatives of their type, but examples of interesting things in the era are: one-off, proportional, flanked by simple pillars. Altars with a modest quadratic form and a naive image could have been made by the masters of the small town. The potential of local origin greatly increases their value in our eyes.
The Anseküla altar is depicted on the cross of Christ. In the inventory of 1716, the altar is described as "Auf dem altar ist ein tafel, worauf die Kreuzigung Christi abgemalet". At the end of the 19th century, the altar was evaluated by the emotional paralysis of the Anseküla pastor Martin Körber: "From the scripture, the altar tries to tune the sensitive mind to prayer. And the painter has not just been Raffael, the producer of this image was such a co-worker that he did not want to see the image of a more aesthetically perceived viewer for the second time. " Such words are unexpected from the man's mouth, whose father captured the antiquities of Livonia. The charm of a naive painting has not yet been discovered.
Remarkable is the Jerusalem view in the background. Chapel domes, red roofs of buildings and white walls are painted somewhat unilaterally, but the masters have a complete view of the metropolis. Since Christ, Mary, and John's nail is round and full-colored, it seems that the author has used some of the older paintings as a model and probably most of his paintings on the head, since the engravings circulated at that time were no longer used by such an archaic type of halo.
Behind the Pöide church chancellery, with the image of the Holy Supper and the pillars based on the bottom wall of the chaos, was probably the old altar painting, as the signatories did not meet the epic texts of the Eucharist. Must be taken into account by Mrs Luther's recommendation to give preference to this message at altar screens. The composition of the Pöide board was somewhat more proud than the previewed Anseküla. The altare sculpture depicts Christ in the garden of Ketchup, and everything was crouched with a krutsif. The ends ended with Moses and John's sculptures. A similar scene in which Moses and John were raised to the upper zone as a continuation of the pillars has also been used on the altar of St. John's Church in Saaremaa. The latter, however, appears to be in the mid-18th century.
Altaritivad at the Saaremaa Museum
The two plate boards of Adam and Eve are likely to be wings of an altar, because on their other side there is a representation of a passage in six cassettes. The sages are considered from the bottom right up and from the top to the bottom: the whipping of Christ, Pontius Pilatus washing his hand, Christ on the rock of the oil, wearing the Cross, Christ's feast of christ, the resurrection of Christ. An example of the "Christ of the Nativity of the Mother" is Zaharias Dolendo's engraving by Carel van Mandr. Zacharias Dolendo carried out a whole engraver folder on Passo, which contained 14 graphic pages. but in other pictures the artist does not use them as an example.
Altar's most interesting side is the outside. Adam and Eve, Pattulangemine and Paradise were also depicted in the Middle Ages, but their placement on the entire wing of the wings of the wicker is already a challenge and a sign of a humanistic way of thinking.
Known to be the first Dutch nobility champion Jan van Eyck, painting painted men and women, Adam and Eve, on the altar of Ghent (1432). This work was familiar to Albrecht Dürer, who noted the altar in his book of contents in 1521 (Panofsky 1971: 215). However, A. Dürer realized his vision of the first people in the world in 1504.
The Dürer engravers are a distant example of the figures we have seen, even though the bodies are silhouetted, there is no Dürer-specific power that characterizes a humane, humane person. Saaremaa's plates are more like Lucas Cranach's elder (1472-1553), sensitive and naive to the human body.
The extraordinary nature of the Saaremaa slabs is that there are no more retailers in Estonia with the Scene of Pattulangemine. They are a kind of memorial to the idea of a German humanism.
The end of the 16th century and the 17th century was the period when the Renaissance grew seamlessly into Baroque art. Because these limits were not so rigid, we have not paid much attention to the style. Rather, a common line is presented with similar phenomena elsewhere. With its magnificent individual examples, Saaremaa is clearly depicted in the Estonian context. Undoubtedly, the historical background has played a role here.
The center of the Diocese and the city that formed it, and the subsequent administrative-political status of the Saaremaa Knights, made this island attractive in the following centuries. The wish of the bad guys to emphasize their status in the church, donating altars and chancelleries, and placing hailing pituals on the walls, was also characterized by Mainland Estonia. However, in the 17th century no work was ordered from Tallinn alone. The location on the crossroads of the Baltic Sea has enriched our art through centuries.
Two-year book of the Saaremaa Museum 1995 - 1996
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