It is rare for schools to have such a long history of founding as Kuressaare Sea School. It has been known for about half a century. Already in 1840, the Maritime School opened in Kuressaare in the St Petersburg authorities.

Following the issuance of the Russian Maritime Schools Act of 1867, the Governor General of the Baltics Albedinski has submitted to the Ministry of Finance a plan for the establishment of a Kuressaare Maritime School, which was not approved.
In 1880, the Russian Shipping Shipping Promotion Society was informed that the Saaremaa people would like to establish a very maritime school. 1887 Pilguse municipality has made a respective application.

However, in the 1880s, many Seamen did not go to Saaremaa to study in the maritime schools in the continent in Heinast and Paldiski.
So, in the 1880s, only 4 young people went to study at the Paldiski Sea School in Kuressaare. In the same decade, the parish has gone to Hainas and 6 Paldiski Maritime Schools; Jämaja Parish has gone to Paldiski; Kaarma 2 to Paldiski; I am from Black Island from Käsmu Sea School and from Pöidl to Paldiski. A total of 16 seamen in 10 years.
It is possible that some students also studied in Riga or elsewhere. In the 1880s, in Hiiumaa, more than 26 seamen went to study in Estonian maritime schools. And yet, when the Kuressaare Maritime School was opened, Saaremaa was sufficiently educated. This shows that the need for such an institution actually existed.

In 1888, the curator of the Tartu Study Area Curator Kapustin submitted to the Ministry of Public Education a proposal to close the Maritime School of Užava in Kurama and to provide its national maintenance amounts (900 rubles per year) to the planned Kuressaare Maritime School. So it was known. But we do not know whether this was Kapustin's own idea or suggested to him such an opportunity. In this regard, at one time, sometimes it was talked about the transfer of the Užava school to Kuressaare. This point has been pointed out in 1985. also Ants Pärna, without being disappointed. Because of St. Petersburg, it might have seemed that it was merely the transfer of a maritime school from one point in Livonia to another.
However, from our point of view, it was open in the 1870s and 1890s. Užava Sea School was closed in the history of maritime history of the Latvian nation, Kuressaare Sea School opened 100 years ago in the history of Estonian maritime history. These are two different educational institutions.

The establishment of the Kuressaare Maritime School was facilitated by the fact that there were affluent urban residents who sacrificed their treasures for school, such as Emilie and Ludvig Grosswald and others. And also, Mayor Julius Rehsche was an agar supporter of the establishment of a maritime school.

1860-1880. The network of maritime schools established in the coastal provinces of the Baltic Sea in the years was uneven. On the Latvian coast from Heinäs to Liepaja there were 10 sea schools, only Paldiski, Käsmu and Narva schools were located on Estonian beaches. The establishment of a maritime school in Kuressaare significantly contributed to the network of marine schools that was at that time.

The Kuressaare Maritime School was opened on Sunday, November 17 (29), November 1891. school blessing. Teaching began on November 17, 18 (30) on Pikk Street with 17 students. Over the course of the winter, students came to the fore. Finally, they received 32 of them. In the spring of 1892, 9 sailors tested them. The invitation was made by Ivan Käsk and Karl Kider from Saaremaa, Nikolai Koževnikov from Kuressaare, Aleksander Kurikjaan and Juhan Rüis from Saaremaa, Toomas Mesbach from Harjumaa and Juhan Pärtel from Hiiumaa, Eduard Melkert from Kuressaare and Priidu Kõmmus from Hiiumaa. The youngest of these men was 20, the oldest 36-year-old.

There are two distinct periods in the history of czarist maritime education: 1867-1902, when the maritime schools worked under the relatively noble Maritime Schools Act of 1867; since 1902, when maritime education was more strictly subjected to bureaucratic control, centralization and russeting pressure on the central power. The Kuressaare Maritime School was founded at the time when the Maritime Schools Act of 1867 was still in force, but an intensive regional russification policy was already in place. Therefore, Kuressaare Maritime School was appointed on Nov. 5. In 1890, the Russian language of instruction approved in the statutes.

According to the statutes, the goal of the school was to provide knowledge to the extent of the rider trainer's exam program. So he had to become a junior high school in I grade. However, as we have seen, at the first year of school, the school graduated two men with a call of a rider. In the spring of 1893, the four cephalopods, 8 outboard riders and 12 coast runners stopped at the school. This shows that the school went far beyond the level of education to formally awarded it to grade I and began to work as a third grade school. This was made possible by the fact that among the students there were mariners with a large seagoing experience. The tsarist government did not raise the level of the school and the state support, however, repeatedly.

Leadership and teachers also played a part in their successful work. The first teacher (chairman) was Johan Prinz (1846-1923), a well-known outsider, who graduated from the Ventspils Maritime School after the school was opened. She taught primarily maritime subjects. For many years, Vassili Konstantinov from Kuressaare, who was later in the same office in Courland, was a teacher (auxiliary teacher) of Russian and general subjects. The mayor also belonged to the school board Rehsche.

The examination committee came together in Kuressaare every spring. For many years, its chairman was Colonel Glinsky, whose attitude was also part of the successful work of the school.

As stated, the Russian language was set as the language of instruction in the statutes. The fulfillment of this requirement by letter would have been very difficult in the 1890s and would have seriously damaged the purpose for which the school was founded. How did you actually act? There are conflicting data in the documents on this. Sometimes it is said that the language of instruction is Russian, sometimes it is added that the Estonian language is used as a language of instruction.

According to Mihkel Komlem, "learning was mainly born in Estonian, and German, Russian and English were used to get things done" ("Our Earth", 24 August 1929). We can say that until the year 1902 Kuressaare Maritime School also escaped those sailors who knew little Russian or did not know at all.

In November 1894, the 2nd Congress of Russian Technical and Vocational Characters sent a questionnaire to 38 chairmen of the Maritime School. The responses were published in the "Exporters" of the Russian Shipping Shipbuilding Promotion Company. The answers to this questionnaire are also available at Kuressaare Maritime School 1894/95. a. in winter, as well as the opportunity to compare Kuressaare School with other maritime schools.

First of all, it is announced that the municipality applied for the establishment of the Kuressaare Maritime School; the establishment of the school was also supported by the Russian Shipping Shipbuilding Promotion Society. The city government gives the school 171 rubles a year and chooses the school's board of directors (committee) dealing with economic and administrative issues. The school has 2 teachers: a specialist and general teacher.

The most important teaching materials are maps, compasses, chronometers, sextants, mechanical logs, compass deviation instruments, and ship drawings. (Of course, the teaching equipment came to years, so the school's small steam engine is spoken in 1898.) Compared to the answers of the Heinaste, Paldiski and Narva Schools, it seems that Kuressaare (1894) had less teaching aids. However, it was more or less equal to the Käsmu Maritime School.

At the entrance to the students' preliminary knowledge, it is said that all 32 students of the Kuressaare Maritime School were able to read and write, many of them had even more background knowledge. The Kuressaare Maritime School definitely dropped off from the Paldiski Maritime School, which had a large number of townspeople with elementary or even partial secondary education. Perhaps the pre-knowledge of the students of the Heinaste Marine School was somewhat better (because they all could have read more than write). However, many Russian nautical schools were literally illiterate. According to the questionnaire, one of the analfabees has also been released this year.

There were 8 days a day, 48 lessons per week. Teaching lasted from October 20 to March 20. There was no need for an ad school, because there were still more people to enter, than received. The main obstacle was the lack of space; The school had only 3 rented rooms: a classroom, a teacher's room and a dressing room. Uniforms were not available at that time, but the Kuressaare Maritime School has considered it desirable to introduce it.

The question of the teaching method (whether it is strictly mathematical or exemplary) corresponds to the Kuressaare Sea School: a mathematical method. For comparison: the Paldiski Sea School has an exemplary method, Käsmu - is mostly exemplary and in Heinaste both mathematical and exemplary.

Most of all, the fact that it was still not turned into a school of grade III, although it was applied for since 1892, most of all was hampered by the normal development of the school. It was the result of a lack of money that did not allow for the renting of larger premises. In 1901, the situation went even worse: in the autumn it was moved to a cheaper, and therefore a smaller one. Again many readers of the study had to be denied.

The number of students in 1900/01. a. In winter it was 72, decreased by 1901/01. a. in the winter of 42 In the publications published so far, we can not find the annual number of pupils and graduates of Kuressaare Maritime School. However, summary data have been published.

In 1986, Saaremaa's "Kommunismiehitaja" directed the attention of J. Prinz to the preserved Estonian State Archives in Tallinn, which dates back to 1918 and 1919. Here, among other things, the number of pupils from the Kuressaare Maritime School in the form of a table is based on the winter breakdown of the school until 1915. Here is also information about the professional examinations each year. Number of students from the Maritime School from 1891 to 1904. There were a total of 530 years old. 491 of them were from Saaremaa (including Hiiumaa and the other western Estonian islands), and 39 from other countries.

Students were the least of 1894/95. and 1896/97. a. in winter - 25, at most 1900/01. a. in winter - 72. In total, during this period, in the 13 academic year, when it was worked out according to the order established in 1867, a professional examination was issued in 312 cases. The maritime school students completed 41 roadside bikes, 100 riders and 171 rider riders.

From the number of students as a result of the work, the Kuressaare Maritime School dropped off the Heinaste Maritime School. The number of students exceeded the Narva and Paldiski Maritime Schools. In Kuressaare, graduates from the open carrier queue were much more than Käsmu.

The Maritime Schools Act of 1867 was, at the end of the 19th century, buried with characters from the Ministry of National Education and the Ministry of the Interior for the vestment and civilization. Of course, the need to improve the material aspect of the maritime schools and to improve the teaching was evident. Also, the general level of education of the people has increased over the course of 30 years, which allowed for higher demands on applicants.

The changes were necessary. But by the 20th century. Initially, the reform of the sea schools was reflected in the attempts by the tsarist government to subordinate the sea schools to the central authority more vigorously, to make maritime education gradual, thereby preventing lower-level students from accessing upper-secondary schools, limiting the rights of unjustifiably lower categories of ship managers. Even though more money was being given to the schools of the sea, the results of such an injustice and the offensive of a nationalist reputation could not be fruitful.

In 1902 and 1903, the Maritime Schools, which worked well in Estonia, were reorganized into lower-level 2nd and 3rd class marine schools, which provided limited rights in comparison with the past. In 1918, J. Prinz wrote: "On 1 July 1902 the Kuressaare Maritime School was transformed into a 2-class Maritime School (with three preparatory classes)." According to other sources, the school was reorganized on July 2nd. And the preparation class was called a 3-class preparation school, headed by, as well as the Principal 2-class Maritime School.

Prinz continued: "The director of the school and 4 teachers were appointed to the program. Students were given tuition fees as follows: in special classes - from other rituals - 18 rubles per year, from local level 12 rubles per year, in preparatory classes - 10 from other rituals, 6 rbl per year.
In the fifth grade, there were an average of 50-70 students per year. The graduation of special classes was given by the rights of the Rifleman. During the school, 73 students completed such a call.
The graduation of the preparatory school gave the right to take a long-distance maritime school. A total of 75 students graduated from the preparatory school.
As evident from the above, the old seagoing classes achieved better results than the last converted school. This can be explained by the fact that the last school gave only the rights of a short-distance rider, which is why the more ambitious young men preferred to leave the country. "

So Kuressaare started 2-kl. The Maritime School prepares engineers of IV grade, who in 1902 respectively. The law was entitled to be a transit freight trader to assist the captain and long-distance freight trains to help the captain's younger aid. No higher-level maritime schools in Estonia are open. It was unacceptable for some of the national educational needs of those who were then. Therefore, he called for 1902. the reform in the maritime circles of the European Union is an expression of resentment.

In the 2-class marine school, the number of students dropped. In the years 1904-1915 it fluctuated from only 11 to 22. The number of graduates also dropped in school. Students now came more distant (i.e. from the mainland) relatively slightly more than in the 1890's. Yet, the Kuressaare Maritime School was now largely an educational institution for islanders.

The cessation of organization of professional exams in Kuressaare speaks of deepening bureaucracy and distrust of local figures. To take exams, I had to go to Riga, where it was, of course, in Russian. Reform meant a new assault on mother tongue instruction in schools where it still existed.

How was teaching now in the Kuressaare Maritime School?

1910/11/11. Juhan Piigert, a seafarer who studied at the Sea School Preparation School in winter, was reminded: "The Estonian language was used in elementary classes, it was not forgotten. The teachers provided explanations in Estonian, but they included Russians, Latvians and others who did not know Estonian. They gave lessons in Russian The students of the Maritime School were those who did not know the Russian language. "

"It is said in the" Sea Calendar 1912 ":" Kuressaare 2-year Maritime School will be accepted: who will complete a parish or folk dance school, or take an exam on this, and not less than 12 months old, and not less than 17 years old and sailing ships. those who are 13-17 years old and Russian to read and write and understand the 4 original characters of the planet. "

As J. Piiger reminds us, the concessions of the students of the Russian language were made.
School maintenance is said on 1906/07. a. According to the report, from the Ministry of Trade - 6890 rubles, from the city of 200 rubles, the tuition fee was 832 rubles. and the knight of Saaremaa 200 rbl., thus totaling 8122 rubles. One student spent teaching 174 rubles. At the school there was now a manager and 7 teachers (of which 4 were on the spot). Ants Piip (1906-1912) also worked as a teacher. The increase in the number of teachers meant a certain increase in the level of education and more scholasticism.

The new law, which was approved in 1909, no longer made any distinction between sailboats, steamboats and freight and passenger ship managers, but only between drivers of short and long voyages. This meant expanding the rights of lower-level marine schools. It was supposed to be followed by a new reform of the maritime schools, which, however, was not achieved in the tsarist era.

In the years of World War I, western Estonian naval schools (Heinaste, Kuressaare and Paldiski) were evacuated. 1915 Sept. 14 In the Daily newspaper, J. Prinz announced that "Kuressaare Maritime School will not open this activity in the new academic year. Maritime school 2nd grade students will begin teaching Oct. 2 at the premises of the Golopristan Maritime School and the 3rd grade students of the preparatory school in the Herson Distant Maritime School. to take part in other schools. 1. Special class students and those who want to join the Maritime School may choose to go to other schools, but they will be passed too. "
According to the Tallinna Teataja (Aug. 4, 1916), the Kuressaare Maritime School moved to Golaja Pristan in 1915, while the preparatory class was Herson.

I do not know if and how many students went to southern Ukraine. However, it increased in 1915/1916. a. In winter, the number of students in the Käsmu Maritime School is leaps and bounds. This is related to the evacuation of the western marine schools in Estonia.

What was taken away from the treasury of the school?

I quote from Mr Prinz from April 4, 1919, to the Education Department of Saaremaa County Government: "All the assets of the maritime school have been evacuated to the city of Herson. There are empty cabinets, school desks and pillars here. The archive is completely here." According to A. Pärn, 19 items were also preserved in the hands of Prinz and were given to students in 1919. reopened to school.

Thus, the first activity period of nearly a quarter of a year ended in Kuressaare Maritime School. During that time about 350 professional sailors came from this school. Many of them are alive. I would mention only two men, whom Mihkel Kommel saw most notably 62 years ago.
These were Johan Pitka, the organizer of the Estonian naval force, who studied at Käsmu, Kuressaare and Paldiski Sea School (Examination of the Expeditionary Pantry in Tallinn in 1895) and Capt. Karl Jõgi, known in the history of polar exploration, under his leadership in 1928. icebreaker "Krassin" made a trip to rescue Umberto Nobile expedition.

Väino Sirk
Two-year book of the Saaremaa Museum 1991 - 1992